Present study attempted to explore presence of social skills among hearing impaired students taking education from government special education schools and to compare different level of social skills based on different demographic variables. It is a descriptive study in nature and survey method is used to collect the data. Population of study is hearing impaired children living in division Faisalabad and Lahore. Sample of N=200 hearing impaired students are selected through convenient sampling technique. Responses of social skills are taken from mothers as mothers have better knowledge of proficiencies of their hearing impaired children’s social skills. Children’s age group was 05-20 years. Age range of mothers was 25-55 years. Social skills checklist was used to as tool of the study for collection of data. It is a mixed method approach and statistical measures were made via frequency distribution, t-test and ANOVA. Results of current study clearly depicted that 82% hearing impaired students have low level of social skills and 18% hearing impaired students have best level of social skills. Current study also find out that there is significant difference in social skills of students on the basis of living area and children age and there is no significant difference in presence of social skills in hearing impaired students and their age. The study concluded that teachers should focus on individual differences while teaching social skills to hearing impaired children and should adopt different teaching methods and teaching strategies for every student. It was also recommended that job holder mothers should manage their time table and must spare their proper time for their special children to make them beneficial and socially adjusted child of community.
Micro enterprise in Pakistani cities is a survival economy for those who do not have a chance to enter the labor market as well as for those who desire to shape their destiny as an entrepreneur. In the last century, access to economic life through microenterprises was possible even without or at a very low level of training. In today’s world of specialization where micro enterprise not only play significant role in the form of entry to business world but also prove to serve as input provider to small, middle and large scale enterprises, and in addition to this micro enterprises have also become capable of innovation. In this context micro enterprises have started providing training and skill to the new entrants in the form of apprenticeship because hiring of skilled labor increases per unit cost of production. Hence training, apprentice and production of skilled labor at micro enterprises have not only strengthened the role of micro enterprises as a factor for economic development, but have also become an effective tool for social institutions. Hence this research is carried out with the objective to determine the role of micro enterprises in economic development and to assess the apprenticeship at micro enterprises as social institutionalization. Data was collected from micro enterprises about the indicator of economic success and target group for social institutionalization were apprentice working at micro enterprises in Peshawar. The analyzed data showed significant contributions of micro enterprises both in economic development and social institutionalization.
Many countries around the globe attempted to decentralize the powers either political or financial to perform more efficiently. Pakistan being in search of growth also attempted to decentralize the financial authorities into lower tiers. Researchers empirically tested the various propositions of fiscal decentralization and this study is an addition in the literature while exploring the fiscal decentralization and gross investment nexus in case of Pakistan. The data period for underlying hypothesis ranged from 1985 to 2015. This study measured fiscal decentralization through fiscal transfers and the other control variables are, inflation and trade openness. The selected model is estimated by employing Autoregressive Distributive Lag Model (ARDL). Fiscal transfers although has positive sign but statistically it is insignificant which suggest that theoretically it attract investment but statistically these impacts are insignificant. Allocation of delegated fund into irrelevant projects and the attitude of political leaders to delegate/devolve the financial powers are the probable reasons for these results. Inflation discourage investment in this study sample period and trade openness attract investment. In light of the findings of this study it is suggested that the government may allocate the fund properly, control inflation and open the borders for trade to attract investment in Pakistan.
The quality of parent’s life is an essential component for the development of healthy atmosphere for the rehabilitation of children with sensory disabilities. The study attempted to evaluate quality of parent’s life having children with sensory disabilities. It is a descriptive study in nature. Population of study is parents of children with sensory disabilities living in Faisalabad. Sample of N=200 children with sensory disabilities (n=100 parents of visually impaired children and n=100 of parents of hearing impaired children) is selected through Convenient sampling technique. Parental age is 25-55 years and children age is among 6-15 years. Quality of life BREF is used as instrument of study. Data collected through instrument clearly demonstrated that parents who have children with sensory disabilities have low quality of life as 95% parents responded at neither satisfied nor dissatisfied. it is found out that there is no significant difference in the quality of life of the parents on the basis of gender (mother and father), age groups ( 26-55) and on the basis of category of disability of child. It is concluded that parents having children with sensory disabilities have low quality of life and their relation with the child, their age or category of the child’s disability does not influence parents differently so school administration should arrange workshops and seminars that bring positive wellbeing of the parents having children with sensory disabilities. On the basis of the findings of current study, it is strongly recommended that Parents should visit special schools of their children to keep in touch with the strengths and weaknesses of their child. And Governmental policies makers should bring in further legislation to support family in regard to healthcare for family members with a se
Emergence of Islamic State (IS) in Iraq has forged havoc in country. Unlike other radicalist groups, IS is the product of socio-political and institutional nuisance, rather to be ignited by ethno-religious fracas. This paper is aimed to analyse the relationship between state institutions and society; how weak state institutions facilitate the genesis of insurgency; and how the institutional malaise created grounds for insurgency to infiltrate in Iraq? The American intervention of Iraq eroded the state vital institutions. Henceforth, the democratic transition under Maliki’s administration, despite of establishing national unity, hatched ethno-sectarian cleavage in society. Maliki’s proclivities of centralization and immature culture of political parties in running the affairs of parliament alienated the Sunni community in Iraq. Moreover, the American perception of Sunni community under Saddam Hussein further inflamed the communal discord. Such bias culminated mass exodus on the pattern of communal and sectarian bases from Bagdad to other regions of the country. Once, the ground was set for resentment against other sects, ethnicities and state, then it was easy for radicalist groups to exploit the deprived communities accordingly.
Terrorism and sectarian violence has started since the creation of the Pakistan. Terrorism is the deliberate use of unlawful force or violence to achieve goal that is political or ideological nature. Special Anti-terrorist courts enforce the Anti-terrorism laws of the Pakistan and system nominates organizations and people consisted with terrorism. Different factors are responsible to make Anti-Terrorism law. A number of extremist challenges faced by Pakistan that are ethnic and religious groups. The Pakistan government established committees to encourage sectarian harmony and religious tolerance. Pakistan support Taliban in Afghanistan, which make the way safe for militancy and also for terrorists. The anti-terrorism law has massive implication on Pakistan by different ways. Pakistan has been effected economically, politically, socially and militarily. According to Pakistan Finance Ministry, that counter terrorism campaign has caused unemployment in affected areas, which increased poverty. The listing of these proscribes organizations is also one of the factor to make anti-terrorism law. To gauge the impacts of anti-terrorism law, so there is technological impediment inhabits a particular incident of terrorists. Due to this hurdle unintended results happened and they transferred the attack. This law also desisted the activities of those groups who are involved in funds rising, money laundering and participation in terrorist activities. This law has sustainable effect on civil freedom rights and values. Some decision maker was also condemned this act on account of personal liberties. The additional powers of this act have been produced inimical result to combat terrorism.
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of exports on economic growth of Pakistan and India for the period of 1990 to 2016. The unit root test namely Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test was used to identify stationarity in the data. The method of Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) was employed to estimate the coefficient of the variables. The FMOLS results exhibit that exports is having positive and significant impact on economic growth in both countries. Moreover, the empirical results reveal that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow and human capital have also positive and significant effect on the economic growth. The findings of this study suggest that policy makers need to make effective policies in order to increase the volume of exports as well as attract direct foreign investment and encourage human capital in order to stimulate economic growth.
Social enterprise is an important idea to resolve many societal issues at micro and macro level. This global concept appeared to have a significant impact on the improvement of communities. Like other countries, Pakistan has also been depositing significant resources in framework of social enterprise to supplement community services. This paper therefore, examined the beliefs about the functions of distance education in promoting social enterprises in rural areas of Punjab. Total 360 students and 120 teachers (with rural background) from 06 universities were the sample of the study. The data were collected purposively using two separate questionnaires. Multilevel analyses were performed to measure the participants’ beliefs. It is obvious from the findings that distance education performed significantly to enhance the awareness of social enterprises in the rural setting. This awareness also demonstrates as social services and attempt to enhance social set-up of the rural residents.