Dispositional mindfulness is a construct used to describe the extent to which an individual is conscious of one's feelings and actions of daily life while craving is intense desire to consume a particular food. In the present study it was hypothesized that there will be negative correlation between dispositional mindfulness and food cravings and there will be significant gender difference in the level of dispositional mindfulness and food cravings. It was also hypothesized that there will be group differences among exercisers and non-exercisers in the level of dispositional mindfulness and food cravings. The sample consisted of 138 students studying in university of Peshawar. Two self-report measures were administered for data collection i.e. Mindful attention awareness scale (Brown & Ryan, 2003) and Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait- reduced (Meule et al. 2014). Results were analyzed through SPSS 22. The Results indicated that dispositional mindfulness significantly negatively correlated with food cravings. Regression analysis revealed that dispositional explained 5% variation in food cravings. Furthermore, no significant difference found in dispositional mindfulness and food cravings among exercisers and non-exercisers. Whereas statistically significant difference was reported in food craving among males and females with females scoring high on food cravings as compared to males while there exist no significant difference in dispositional mindfulness among males and females. Therefore, this research can help in introducing effective mindfulness techniques which could help in managing food cravings and pathological eating.
The study titled "ruined image of Police Force in District Charsadda Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan" was carried out in District Charsadda, Pakistan. The nature of the study was quantitative and close ended structures questionnaire consisting upon three levels (Yes, No and Uncertain) was used as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 300 respondents was purposively selected through simple random sampling with the help of Sekaran Magic Table and the collected data was presented at uni-variate and bi-variate levels of analysis. The association between dependent and independent variables was determined with the help of Chisquare test statistics. The study results concluded a significant association (P≤0.05) between police performance and statements including; uniformity in police attitudes towards victims and offenders, capacity of highly educated police officials to cope with different situations, ineffective hiring process of police and its relations with corruption, and politicians influence over hiring process of police. Furthermore, a non-significant relationship (P≥0.05) disclosed police performance and the notions i.e. local people involved police force in their disputes and strategies of conflict resolutions, awareness among police officials about registering proper First Information Report (FIR) without any prejudice, special training opportunities for learning advanced investigation techniques and availability of training facilities for police to cope with emergency situations. Creating awareness among police through trainings, seminars, and workshops, merit based hiring of police officials, capacity building of police, and trust building between police and local people through combined meetings were forwarded some of the recommendations in light of study results for future planning.
This article aimed to study the relationship between playing violent video games and aggression among youth of Mardan. Participants (60 males and 60 females), age range from 15-29 years were approached through purposive sampling technique. Video Game Questionnaire by Anderson and Bushman (2000) was used to measure the use of violent video games. Aggression Questionnaire by Buss and Perry (1992) was used to measure the aggression. Data was collected computed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22). Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to investigate the relationship between the variables under study. The results concluded no significant relationship of playing violent video games and aggression. Further gender differences were found using independent sample t-test. Results obtained concluded no significant gender differences on the variable aggression. With the help of this study Government could make rules and age based ratings to restrict violent content and help parents to supervise children's games' content.
The present study investigated the role of parenting styles and Machiavellianism in borderline tendencies among university students. It was also intended to determine the role of various demographics (gender and years of education) in relation to study variables. Sample (N = 200) comprised of students (men and women) with age range of 18-29 years was acquired from government and private universities from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Measures of Parenting Authority Questionnaire (Buri, 1991), Machiavellianism Subscale (Paulhus & William, 2011), Zanarini Rating Scale of Borderline Tendencies (Zanarini, 2003) were used to assess the study variables. Result showed positive association of negative parenting styles (authoritarian and permissive) with Machiavellianism and borderline tendencies. Results also showed that the positive parenting style (authoritative parenting style) was negatively associated with Machiavellianism and borderline tendencies. Findings further unveiled that the male students reported more negative parenting style and reflected higher inclinations of Machiavellianism and borderline tendencies as compared to women. It has been also found that postgraduate students expressed higher perceptions of negative parenting styles, Machiavellianism and borderline tendencies as compared to graduate students. Implications, limitations and suggestions for further research had also been discussed.
Unemployment remains an issue from the start of 21 Century which has many psychological effects on individual's life such as stress, depression, lowered selfesteem, apathy and self-doubt. The main objective of the present study is to see the differences among employed and unemployed fresh male Graduates on perceived stress and its association with age and various fields of study (e.g. natural, social and computer sciences). The study was conducted over a period of one month, March, 2019 and a sample of 150 males, freshly Graduated from various universities of Islamabad/Rawalpindi, has been collected by using convenient nonprobability sampling. Demographic sheet and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (Cohen et al., 1988) were used for data collection. Results revealed significant mean differences between employed and unemployed fresh male Graduates on perceived stress. Further results showed that correlation between stress and age of the graduates whereas differences among groups of graduates from various field of education on PS were not significant. On the basis of results, it is concluded that graduates form various universities experienced stress, so along with increasing job opportunities, stress management programs should be taken into consideration for them.