International Journal of Psychological and Behavioural Research (IJPBR)

Authors:   Tahira Jabeen [1], Dr Sajida Naz [2], DOI:


The aim of the study was to examine parents' perspective regarding TV viewing. For this purpose, five interviews were conducted the parents, by using convenience sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were parents having children of 11 to 13 years of age. Interviews were conducted with parents in their homes. Analysis of interviews was done by thematic analysis technique. During the interviews, four main areas were probed i.e, Parents general perception towards TV viewing, existing rules regarding TV viewing, and suggestions given by parents. The results of the present study showed that parents still use TV as an option of entertainment and learning for children but they view TV viewing as an unhealthy activity in general. They have pointed out more negative aspects of TV viewing. According to them, if TV viewing is restricted then it will result in both positive and negative consequences. Positive consequences of restricting TV time can be in the form of increased interest in studies, religious activities, physical activities and attitude towards pro social behaviors. Whereas, parents have also pointed negative outcomes in the form of health issues, effect on eye sight, behavioral issues and wandering behavior of the children. Parents have highlighted three aspects of TV viewing in general. If we focus on present rules made by parents for their children regarding TV viewing then in this regard there is lack of rules for children. Children can view TV any time. Secondly, TV viewing also serve as a background activity that is ongoing on side by side with other activities and third aspect is lack of alternatives available for parents in which their children can engage with. Apart from this, parents have also given suggestions regarding potential alternatives that can be used to limitize TV viewing among children. They also pointed towards role active of parents.

Authors:   Mah Noor [1], Hareera Zeb [2], Noureen [3], Laila [4], DOI:


This study aims to assess the relationship between social networking sites usage, academic performance, introversion and self-esteem of students. The current study also focus on age and gender differences in the usage of social networking sites. This study surveyed 150 participants (N=150) with the age range from 14 to 25 years, comprising 75 male students (n=75) and 75 female students (n=75). All these participants were approached from two schools, two colleges and two universities of Swabi. Three questionnaires; Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSE, Rosenberg, 1965), Introversion Scale (IS, McCroskey, 1984) and Social Networking Time Use Scale (SONTUS, Olufadi, 2015) were used for data collection. The key findings of this research were that there was positive correlation between social networking time use and introversion; and the correlation of social networking time use with selfesteem and academic achievement was negative. There was negative correlation of introversion with self-esteem and academic achievement; and positive correlation was existed between self-esteem and academic achievement of students. The findings of this research also revealed that there were statistically significant differences at p<0.05 in the usage of social networking sites with respect to age and gender. The findings of study are discussed in terms of its implication in various sectors i.e. education, student's family environment, and interpersonal relationship of students.

Authors:   Ms. Sumaya [1], Dr. Muhammad Kaleem [2], Mr. Farooq Shah [3], DOI:


A cross sectional analysis was formulated to explore the Pukhtun's societal dilemma i.e., female getting higher education (Dependent variable) with respect to sociocultural hindrances (independent variable) through perceptional based dynamics at Bacha Khan University Charsadda. A sample size of 306 female respondents was selected from total 1500 registered female students in 2020 as per Sekeran's Magic Table. Quota sampling technique was used for the distribution of sample size among the selected categories of respondents. A three point Likert scale structured questionnaire encompassing all the study attributes was used after pre-testing. Furthermore, descriptive and inferential statistics was used for the analysis of data. Alike male cohorts the pursuit of higher education by females is the need of the twenty first century whereby they may have the probability to positively utilize it for economic gains, Socialization of children's and development of her societies. In the present era with almost many opportunities of pursuing female higher education parents are still least interested in female higher education, due to the harassment and exploitation cases towards them by teachers, classmates and educational administration. The study further concluded that the common menace of gender inequalities in families deciding regarding genders usually results in eradicating educational opportunities for women and empowering women through education is still in vein due to the persistence of Pukhtoonwali. Similarly, so many other factors are compelling parents not to educate their daughters. Moreover, Co-education is also not favored in the Pashtuns culture and thus this issue should be addressed through electronic and

Authors:   Bibi Zainab [1], Dr. Erum Irshad [2], Syeda Mashal Saeed [3], DOI:


Present study was administered to search out the relationship between big five personality traits and depression. Data was received from students at University of Peshawar through the administration of the instruments Big Five personality Inventory (BFI; John et al., 1991) to determine personality traits and Beck Depression Inventory - II (BDI - II; Beck et al., 1996) to determine depression respectively. Data was collected from a sample of 400 students based on equal representation of males and females (male, n = 200, female, n = 200). The results revealed that neuroticism and conscientiousness (sub dimensions of big five personality inventory) were significant predictors of depression among university students meanwhile extraversion and openness to experience (sub-dimensions of big five personality inventory) were non predictors of depression among them. It is imperative to understand the connection that exists between personality traits and depression provided that the personality variables in individuals can lead to determining the incidence of depressive symptoms in them. If such personality traits are identified, they can be cues towards predicting and treating depression among masses in addition to designing therapeutic interventions to deal with its occurrence.

Authors:   Ayesha Khalil [1], Dr. Saad Subhan [2], Nayab Khurshid [3], DOI:



Violence is a leading cause of disability, resulting in poor health, a terrible quality of life, and a significant reliance on health services. Violence is related to various physical and mental concerns and problems and can some time lead to suicidal attempts and death. A serious and common mental illness Depression (major depressive disorder), prevailing across world, negatively affects the health of individual, both physically and mentally. Depression among women is common in developing countries. There is significant association between depression and domestic abuse. Domestic abuse is a widespread issue for women, with depression being the most common negative mental health effect.


Review was done on published research works from data base of Pub Med, Web med, pop line and Google scholar using the key words (depression, domestic violence). Inclusion Criteria was the studies conducted with title either having depression or/and domestic violence or violence and the study subjects were female living with their partners. Exclusion Criteria was studies in which other mental conditions such as mania, bipolar disorders were also excluded. Patients with congenital or other physical disorders studies were also excluded. A total of 36 Articles available in the open access journals were retrieved and accessed based on the required information regarding depression and domestic violence. The other 22 articles were discarded on the basis of exclusion criteria as mentioned and finally 14 papers were included as per inclusion criteria in this review.

Volume No. 01

Issue No. 02