Present study intended to semi standardize a test of secondary school Mathematics for the students of 9th class. Two Mathematics Achievement Tests (MATs) were prepared from 302 items of previous papers of BISEs of Punjab province, each having 50 MCQs. A sample of 280 students from tehsil Quaid Abad of Khushab District consisted of 142 females and 138 males’ respondents was drawn from the population. MATs were administered on the respondents. Reliability of the tests and traditional item analysis was computed through MS Excel. For reliability of parallel form MATs correlation coefficient was computed. The value of correlation coefficient was 0.64. Through item analysis, item discrimination index and item difficulty index of each item of the test was computed. There was a lot of repetition in the items of Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education. Violation of standard rules was there for item construction. Coverage of curriculum was incomplete. As a result of item analysis total 34 items were rejected, 6 items were rejected on the basis of both Discrimination index and Difficulty index, 27 items were rejected due to discrimination index, 13 items were rejected on the basis of difficulty index, 2 items were difficult and 11 items were easy. For Rasch calibration PROX method was used for item difficulty and person ability. On the basis of Rasch calibration 2 items were rejected. Rasch latent continuum, Itemcharacteristic curve and person characteristic curve were drawn according to Rasch model which made the data clearer and more understandable.
Religion has central importance in the life of most of the people in this world. Cholistan is one of the largest deserts of Pakistan where an overwhelming majority of the population is Muslims since centuries. Living with semi nomadic culture, people in Cholistan have poor access to basic human needs such as education, health, housing and drinking water. This ethnographic study aims at exploring various factors affecting religious knowledge and awareness among people of Cholistan. Using qualitative research method, data were collected from 50 participants from both Greater and Lesser Cholistan through protracted qualitative interviews and participants observation. The findings of the study revealed that due to adverse climatic and poor socio-economic conditions, people in the Cholistan were least aware about religious teachings and rituals particularly those living in Greater Cholistan. In the absence of formal ways of religious learning and training, there were number of informal channels such as interaction with people from settled areas, elderly family members, religious gatherings and electronic as well as social media which affect religious knowledge and awareness. The study concludes that social life including religion is affected by environmental conditions and there is less practice of religion in hostile climatic conditions.
The casual comparative study aimed to examine the effect of school culture on the job performance of school teachers. The population of the study was secondary schools teachers of public sector in Lahore. Proportionate stratified random sampling was used to select the sample. Strata were formed to select the sample on the basis of gender. The total number of female school teachers was one thousand one hundred and ten. Three hundred and thirty three female school teachers (30% of the total population) were selected as sample of the study. The total number of male teachers was nine hundred and three. Two hundred and seventy one male school teachers (30% of the total population) were selected as sample of the study. Questionnaire developed by Beets (2008) was used to measure school culture and the questionnaire developed by Amin, Shah, Ayaz, and Ata (2013) was used to measure job performance of school teachers. Multiple regression, and independent sample t-test were used to analyze the data. Major findings revealed that there was significant effect of school culture on job performance of school teachers. It was recommended that training should be provided to teachers to equip them with strategies to develop a good school culture.
The main objective of the study was to know the level of perception of teachers about the promoters that promote creativity among the students. Further, the teachers’ level of perception were compared regarding demographic variables of gender, area and marital status. The design of the study was quantitative in nature and used the survey method to accomplish the above-mentioned objectives. The target population was all the schoolteachers in Pakistan at various levels. For data collection, an online questionnaire on social media platforms (WhatsApp, Emails and Facebook) was uploaded which was filled online by 400 school-teachers randomly. It must be noted that the original questionnaire was constructed, validated and made reliable by the Sarsani (1999) in India. The original questionnaire had 17 items with 5-point Likert scale but the current researchers just took (adopted) 11 items from the original questionnaire without changing a single word. The current researchers sought the Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient to see if the adopted questionnaire is reliable in Pakistani context. The data were analyzed through SPSS by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that Pakistani teachers had a high level of perception about the promoters that promote creativity in students. The gender and area had no significant differences while the marital status had significant differences regarding the teachers’ level of perception about the promoters to creativity. The results were discussed in light of past literature and recommendations were given.
In today’s world globally social scientists, states, and entrepreneurs have shown great interest in SME development and recommended that innovation is one of the best sources to achieve a potential contribution of SMEs. A qualitative case study research is conducted to understand the distinct determinants leading SMEs towards innovation. Thirteen cases have been selected for an in-depth interview through convenient sampling. Data has been analyzed through Miles and Huberman techniques with the support of NVIVO-10. The findings highlight certain determinants that lead SMEs towards innovation like dominantly educated and experienced owners/ managers, financial resources availability, technology acquisition, R&D activities, and skilled employees. Surprisingly, the findings suggest that a close relationship with technology and material suppliers strongly impacts a firm’s innovative performance. Overall, the findings suggest that innovation is possible in an unsupportive institutional environment if a firm can properly utilize its available resources and abilities.
In the absence of a uniform industrial and cluster policy in developing countries like Pakistan, a framework for the identification of viable clusters (with a balance of profitability and Sustainability) in an economy is vital to focus resources and policy recommendations on them. This research identified indicators based on a literature survey that define the viability of industrial clusters and prioritized the indicators based on experts’ recommendations through the Delphi technique with 0.5 and 4.00 cut-off points for Level of Consensus and Weighted Average respectively. The results reflect that involvement in child labor, environmental impacts of firm’s operations, and corroborating with corrupt regimes were considered the most important indicators of a firm’s viability considering the sustainability dimension whereas all the measures of centrality and linkages of firm with various actors were rated highly by the respondents followed by innovation and R & D dimensions which were also considered critical. Finally, the limitations and de-limitations are discussed and policy recommendations are made.
The aggressive behavior practice and its existence in youth almost everywhere across the globe. Educational institutes in Pakistan can’t be separated from this behavior including street, road, park and other common places. The aggressive behavior is of different interlinking nested subtypes. It found at various among the students. This research study was done to measure the different nested aggressive behaviors of secondary students and explore the difference of aggressive behavior patterns based upon gender, location and type of school of district Peshawar, Pakistan.
The sample was comprised of 1800 secondary level students based upon gender from public and private secondary schools located at rural and urban area of District Peshawar. Multistage random sampling technique was used. Aggressive behavior Inventory based upon aggressive questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was adopted and modified (translated into Urdu) to measure the aggressive behavior patterns (five aspects) of secondary level students. Teacher rating was also used as confirmatory source. T-test was used to explore the difference of aggressive behavior patterns in secondary level students based upon gender, location and type of school.
It was found that all the patterns of aggressive behavior occur in secondary level students of District Peshawar. It was also revealed that there is no significant difference of aggressive behavior patterns on the basis of gender, location and type of school.
Implication for Research and Practice:
The presence of high level of aggressive behavior patterns in secondary level students gives insight to the policy makers about the consequences and dire need to device coping strategy and also informing teacher to examine and control its effects in their practice.
Although attention is paid to the effectiveness of business and political relations in emerging economies, there is not much research that explicitly examines business and political relations in the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in emerging economies. The main aim of this study is to investigate importance of strategic planning in attaining competitive advantage in SMEs of Pakistan. The data was collected from different SMEs of Pakistan based on Non probability purposive sampling technique; the data was collected through questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, and linear regression model were applied for analysis. The independent variables were Vision statement, mission statement, objectives, values and SWOT analysis. According to the results of the study vision statement, mission statement, and objective were found insignificant in achieving competitive advantage whereas, a positive and significant relationship was found for value statement and SWOT analysis with competitive advantage. The results of the study suggested that in Pakistan less attention is paid on development of vison and mission statement which might be the cause of high percentage of failure among many SMEs in Pakistan. As lack of strategic preparation can cause the business to collapse when managers fail to update their goals and objectives regularly therefore strategic it is very important for SMEs to pay significant attention on its strategic planning process, as they have a very significant role in sustainable economic growth of the country.
Man has always been trying to make sense of the world around him in the light of the narratives around him. Be they the stories given in the religious manuscripts, the myths of gods and goddesses, legends of the heroes, or everyday common moral stories, they are always regarded as a store of human wisdom, setting ideals to be aspired by man. The myth of Ramayana is such an epic narrative which provides the Hindus with perfect definitions of an ideal man i.e., Rama or an ideal woman i.e., Sita. During the partition of India (1947), the scene of Sita’s abduction was repeated thousands of times with the women of the sub-continent. The men, who consequently had to play the role of Rama, failed in most of the cases to re-enact the narrative in the true sense of the myth. One finds many literary representations of men who remained confused about their roles in such situations. Sunderlal, a character in Rajinder Singh Bedi’s short story “Lajwanti”, trying to make sense of the Rama-Sita narrative in the wake of his own circumstances, seems to be totally lost in a world of incomprehension. This research affirms that this short story may be read as a contemporized and appropriated Ramayana through an examination of the mechanics of Bedi’s juxtaposition of a concrete event (Lajwanti’s abduction) with an abstract event (Seeta’s abduction by Rawana) and the psychic aftermath of this juxtaposition which consequently shatters the essentials of Ramayana, the myth. The theoretical support will be sought from the concepts including Julia Kristeva’s concept of “intertextuality”, Harold Bloom’s concept of “poetic misprision” and C.G. Jung’s idea of “archetypes and the collective unconscious” to imply, through a detailed textual analysis, that these myths seem to fail to explain the circumstances and the psychical implications of similar events and situ
Outcome based education is a system of education in which steps about the implementation of a curriculum are determined by a program specific learning outcomes students would have achieved at the time of their graduation. These steps consist of course content, educational policies, stake holders input and assessment methodologies. Since Pakistan is one of those few countries who are still following the traditional teacher centric methodology, it is desired to switch to the outcome based education system to be compatible with the rest of the developed world. In this paper, authors describe their experience of using faculty course assessment report for the assessment of student performance in ECON 341 Mathematical Economics, a BS in Economics course offered at Economics department of Abasyn University Peshawar.
The present research is focused on the study of effectiveness of reinforcement and punishment in learning environment. The total number of research participants was 135. The age range of the people who participated in the study was 13 – 18 years. Results showed that participants when got reinforcement and punished, performed better than when they were not given reinforcement and punishment and that reinforcement proved to be more effective than punishment in improving the student’s performance.
The current study tries to understand the impact of Eighteenth Constitutional Amendment on the subject of Provincial Autonomy in the context of 1973 Constitution of Pakistan. In the Constitutional history of Pakistan, the Eighteenth Amendment represents with far-reaching impact was a first bold and great step towards the provincial autonomy, with strong legislative, administrative and financial powers. The Eighteenth Amendment of Pakistan is well defender of nation’s rights in form of provincial autonomy as well. The role of political leadership and parties in power at the center and federating units must be given credit for this positive step of constitutional transformation which strengthened the federation of Pakistan. The Eighteenth Amendment further strengthened the federal structure of Pakistan as it transferred the subjects of Concurrent Legislative List to the provinces and restored parliamentary democracy as envisioned in the 1973 Constitution. Therefore the knowledge of impact of Eighteenth Amendment on provincial autonomy avoids the ambiguity, uncertainty and removes unclear, vague issues. It removes the re-iterate statements, dissent notes and uncompromised level regarding provincial autonomy. It has also analyzed the Legislative, administrative and financial relations to bridge the gap amid center-provinces in Pakistan. In fact this study of existing constitutional structure and balance of powers has proven a fruit of good provincial autonomy.
In modern education, career counseling is very important for the students to choose the best field matching their skills and interest to perform at their utmost level. The present study investigated the awareness, availability, effects and views of student about career counseling. Random sampling technique was used for 400 participants with equal percentage of males and females. A self-prepared closed-ended questionnaire approved by experts was used to collect the data from the participants of the study. Both validity and reliability of questionnaire was ensured through pilot testing. The data was collected from four universities with equal number of participants. It was found that present situation of Career Counseling is not satisfactory and majority of respondents were not guided by career counselor but parents. Private institutions had satisfactory performance regarding career counseling while government institution’s performance was not satisfactory. Further research on career counseling in major cities of Pakistan is needed. It is recommended that government should create at least one post or department of career counseling for each Institution and held seminars at the end of each academic session.
The impact of the Literacy and Numeracy Drive (LND) on three-class students' learning in public schools in District Lodhran was examined in this study. It assists in determining the validity and reliability of Monitoring & Evaluation Assistant (MEAs), monthly indicators for LND assessment to assess Primary School Teachers (PST) performance, attitude, and behaviour, as well as the appropriateness of Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) in the subject of English. This study utilized a quantitative research design in which 07 students from three class were selected from 168 representative schools. Two MCQs type English papers were developed based on MEA's Tablet Base Criterion for assessing students' performance. In these papers, 8 MCQs based on SLOs were provided in November and December. These papers were given to 07 students selected randomly from each class, and the results were subsequently sorted markaz-wise. These markaz-wise collected results were analyzed by comparing actual markazwise results and the results displayed on PITB Website. The findings revealed that the LND application was not effective due to issues with SLOs in English content, MEAs monthly indicators, learners' mother tongue, nonsupportive parental behaviour, Punjab School Education Departments’ high expectations for SLO achievement, and assessment procedure.