Nara desert can be attributed by high wind velocity, heavy shifting and rolling of sand dunes; high diurnal variation of temperature; scanty rainfall; extreme solar radiation and high rate of evapo-transpiration. Phasmids are terrestrial, nocturnal, phytophagous insects found in nearly all temperate and tropical ecosystems. Still now 3,000 species of this group has been described worldwide. Stick insects generally live in trees and bushes, but some species live entirely on grassland. The order Phasmatodea has a worldwide distribution, but most species are found in the tropics. During the present study 05 extensive trips were carried out in Nara desert in result of this survey 87 specimens of stick insect were collected and wondering only single species i-e Carausius (Dixippus) morosus which show its rare status in Pakistan. It was interesting to note that mostly the samples were captured from wheat and other wild vegetation however, its greater percentage was noticed on Acacia nilotica i-e 33.33% and least were reported from Acacia senegal i-e 11.11% female ration was high than male. Beside this, our field observation show that Carausius (Dixippus) morosus feed on fresh leaves. Beside this, it was also noted that Phasmids has strong camouflage ability to escape from predators. Further, it has close resemblance with bark, leaves and even moss or lichen.
Wheat is the main crop containing basic calories and proteins. In tropics and subtropics, heat and drought are the major stresses related to environmental conditions that reduce the wheat production. In plants, heat as well as drought stress alters vital activities and generates reactive oxygen species that cause severe oxidative damage to plants. Plants have evolved various protective mechanisms including production of protective proteins to lessen the effect of heat stress. Heat and drought stress alter water relations, osmolyte contents, soluble proteins and sugars. Turgor pressure, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) are lowest in heat stress. Combined effect of drought and heat stress is more damaging than individual stress on wheat plant.
Abiotic stress such as Salinity causes serious challenge to plant growth and development, so it causes negative influence on plant's growth and yield. Different growth regulators and osmolytes kept attention as productive strategy and help the plant for enhancing stress tolerance and plant' growth and yield improved under stress condition. This project investigates the performance of Brassica napus at germination and seedling stage after application of abscisic acid and proline with combination of salt stress. Experiment was designed in completely randomized manner and petri plates were arranged in different sets with 10 seeds/each and applied with different concentrations of NaCl solutions. Proline (10 -20mM) and ABA (50-100mg/L) was pplied separately and in combination (proline 10 x ABA 50) and (proline 20 x 100) in these sets. After 8 days experiment was terminated and different parameters (germination percentage, seedling growth, shoot and root length, fresh and dry biomass, vigor index, Reletive water content, (RWC) Water content (WC), Root Shoot Ratio (RSR), Shoot Weight Ratio (SWR) and Root Weight Rratio (RWR). Salt stress exhibited significant decrease in shoot and root length, fresh and dry biomass, vigor index, RWC, different ratios (SWR, RWR) and different physiological indices while RSR exhibited increase in comparison to control in all sets. According to this research the application of proline and abscisic acid alone showed increased performance in all studied parameters. Interactions of proline and ABA did not support germination and seedling establishment process. This study concluded that application of proline (10mM) and ABA (100mg/L) improved germination and seedling establishment process very well as compared to other doses in Brasicca napus
The study was carried out to determine the causes of prevalence of dental caries among adolescents in Peshawar particularly the type of food causing caries and to quantify the data on food education and dental caries among adolescents in Peshawar. An analytical cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of caries among adolescents of age16-18 years was done in Peshawar. Total sample size was 100 adolescents. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The results show that poor food education positively correlated to dental caries. It was concluded that food education is lacking in Pakistan and to reduce the number of Dental Caries, the Education Department should include Food Education in the curriculum of high school. In addition to this the Health Department should regularly run campaigns promoting Food Education on electronic and print media.
Bio-active components and a variety of nutrients in colored foods make them therapeutically rich. Worldwide availability and accessibility of these colored foods depend upon geographical and seasonal variations. Evidence based studies previously proved that colored foods have great influence on the prevention of various carcinogenic disorders and other nutritional deficiencies. Diseases like cardio vascular disease, diabetes and cancer which are more prevalent nowadays can be controlled with the help of these colored foods. Abundance of phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals make them active nutraceutical compounds. Each color identifies specific type of nutrients and these nutrients perform specific functions. For instance, yellow colored foods are abundant in vitamin C, ?-carotenoids and bioflavonoids which act as antioxidant and anticoagulant. Green colored foods are loaded with potassium and foliate to improve vision. Chlorophyll in green foods acts as antioxidant and prevents free radicals production which is the root cause of various diseases. Red colored foods are the good source of phytochemicals and lycopene that show anti-aging and antioxidant properties; on the other hand, white and brown foods also contain a large number of vitamins, minerals and many other active ingredients. These foods also contain a significant amount of fiber that helps to promote gastric functioning. Hence, colored foods help in the prevention of different diseases with the help of essential nutrients and phytochemicals.