Dental disparities and poor oral hygiene are an established problem of dental public health in the less developed countries. Pakistan is not an exception to this: socio economic oral health disparities exist in Pakistan's society at a large scale. As Pakistan is a developing economy, it allocates funds far lesser than the international standard set by World Health Organization (WHO) of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for health sector. A large part of population lives in low income category, which exacerbates the problem further. The present study focuses on discussing the GDP allocation to health sector in addition to figuring out the impact of socio-economic factors on oral hygiene. The sample was divided into two categories: high income group and low income group. Both primary and secondary data have been used; the data was collected using a scale of oral health. The analyzed data showed that people with low socio-economic status have low profile dental health. They visit the dentist only when they have a severe problem because they are either unaware of oral hygiene or don't pay heed to it.
Several endophytic fungi are involved in mitigating the heavy metal stress imposed on plants. The experiment was performed to find the impact of B. bassiana (AL) on the seedlings of B. rapa which were stressed by cobalt Result showed that Cobalt treated plant showed reductions in parameters of growth such as Fresh weight (FW) Dry Weight (DW), Shoot length (SL), germination percentage (GP) and Root length (RL). However, when AL was applied, the seedlings showed a sharp increase in growth parameters. Additionally, the seedlings also produced high relative water content (RWC). It has been concluded that AL improved the Co stressed seedlings through increasing the RWC in it.
Different abiotic stresses create noticeable changes in plant growth and development and plant under such condition reduced its yield. Different ions and growth regulators are very important and play key role for creation of stress tolerance in plants. This project was proposed to evaluate the performance of gibberellic acid and silicon on germination and seedling establishment stage of wheat under salinity. Experiment was completely randomized design, in which seeds were sown in petri plates, which were irrigated with different concentration of NaCl (control, 50mM and 150mM), GA3 (50ppm and 100ppm), silicon (5mM and 10mM) and combination of silicon and GA3 (50ppm GA3 x 5 mM Si and 100ppmGA3 x 10 mM Si). After 7 days experiment was terminated and shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, vigor index, RWC, RSR, SWR and RWR were measured. Shoot length, root length, Fresh weight and dry weight, Vigor index, RWC, SWR, RWR and different physiological indices were reduced with increasing salt (50mM and 150mM) as compare to control. Result indicated that different concentration of salt significantly increased RSR as compare to control plant. Further investigations revealed that under non-saline conditions application of GA3, silicon, and interactions showed increase in studied parameters except vigor index, RWR which decreased after foliar applications as compare to without GA3 and silicon applied plants. Additionally, under saline conditions foliar applications of GA3, silicon and interactions increase root length, shoot length, fresh and dry weight, RSR, RWR, SWR and stress tolerance indices. Consequently, the results suggested that these chemicals under studied doses can act as an effective strategy to cope up the deleterious effects of salt in wheat at germination and seedling growth stages.
Unrefined methanolic extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana (Ber) leaves, bulbs of Allium sativum (Garlic) and seeds of Brassica nigra (Black Mustard/Sarso) generally utilized in medication were studied for their in vitro phytochemical and pharmacological screening. Phytochemical screening of Z. mauritiana showed the presence of flavonoids, flavones, phenolic compounds, saponins, terpenoids and nonattendance of tannins, steroids, and glycosides. Similarly, unrefined methanolic extract of A. sativum bulbs showed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. Also, B. nigra seeds showed the indicated the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids and glycosides. The antibacterial activity of plant extracts was determined by utilizing agar well diffusion technique. The plant extracts demonstrated varied levels of antibacterial activity. In this study five bacterial isolates were utilized (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pesudomonas aerugenosa, Klebseila pneunomonae, and Proteus). ZM leaves and AS bulbs extracts showed good antibacterial action against P. aeruginosa and Proteus (50% and 60%), while BN seeds showed low inhibition against P. aeruginosa (28%) but showed great restraint effect against E. coli and Proteus (50%and 60%). The antifungal activity was determined by agar slant technique in contradiction of R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus. AS bulbs extract showed good (14%) antifungal activity when contrasted with ZM leaves (14%) and BN seeds (13%) against R. stolonifer. The extract exhibited low activity against A. niger and A. flavus similarly methanolic extract showed low antifungal activity (10% and 11%). Phytotoxic activities show that these plants caused substantial growth inhibition of Lemna minor in all the dilutions.
Salinity stress gives serious negative impact on plant growth and development and reduces yield and productivity of plants. In world, increase demand of food with increase in salinity worldwide results in cultivation of salt tolerant varieties to fulfill food demand from salt affected areas. For this purpose, present study was conducted with the aim to screen four lines of Linum usitatissimum (i.e; Alsi Ari 1, Alsi Ari 20, Alsi Ari 22 and Alsi Ari 50) for salt tolerance in terms of germination and seedling growth. Experiment was completely randomized, replicated thrice and conducted at Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan. Five seeds of four varieties of Linum usitatissimum were placed in each Petri plate. Seeds treated with different concentrations (0, 50mM and 150mM) of NaCl. After 8 days, experiment was terminated and germination percentage, seedling length, seedlings biomass were recorded, while relative water content, vigor index, RSR, SWR, RWR and stress tolerance index of different parameters were calculated. Analyzing the results, outcome confirmed that salt stress damage the plant at observed stages in the form of drastic and significant reduction in germination percentage, shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content, vigor index, PHSI, RLSI, SFTI, RFTI, SDTI, RDTI, SWR and RWR while RSR increased in different varieties. Reduction percentages of different parameters were increased as salt stress level increased in all studied varieties. On the basis of results obtained using above mentioned physiological criteria, among four lines, Alsi ARI 1 showed higher salt tolerance at germination and seedling growth stage as compare to the other lines. Results of present investigation, different physiological parameters of this study are useful to screen different flax lines for salt tolerance, leading to selection of suitable line, recommended for different saline areas to