Due to recent increase in price hike of petroleum products, different efforts are being done throughout the world in search of an alternative source of fuel. For this reason, various agricultural countries are trying to produce their own fuel from plant based materials. Different types of biofuels like bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, biogas etc. are being investigated throughout the world. The type of the biofuel being produced depends upon the availability of the substrate. This review mainly focused on sugar industry waste called molasses, which is rich in fermentable sugars. The easiest form of the fuel that can be produced from sugar rich substrate is bioethanol, thus the review mainly focused on different methods of bioethanol production from molasses and the challenges related to this process. There are several factors that can affect the production of bioethanol that includes the type of substrate, the fermenting microorganisms, optimization of physicochemical parameters like pH, temperature, and the nutrient requirements of fermenting microbes for the conversion of sugar rich substrate into bioethanol. Moreover, the current scenario of the utilization of bioethanol as a fuel in various countries throughout the world was also discussed in this review.
Food security and food safety are alarming issues in the developing world. Aflatoxins are among the naturally occurring poisons that are fatal for all animals due to their carcinogenic potential. Recent studies have shown the correlation of these toxins with food chains. This correlation has been found to be more significant in developing countries as compared to developed countries. Since the discovery of aflatoxins, great efforts have been exerted to investigate their biochemical nature, biosynthesis, mode of pathogenesis and health-associated effects. However, no sound remedy has yet been designed to completely control their development. The main purpose of this review is to consolidate the findings of published studies on the status of aflatoxins in developing countries, including recent perspectives in this field. The areas that need to be elucidated further are also highlighted
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cash crop in the world. Rice is 2 nd most important food and cash crop of Pakistan after wheat. Forty accessions consisting of 20 conventional varieties and 20 New Plant Type (NPT) lines were used to determine percentage of hull over grain weight. The percentage of hull over grain weight was significantly different among varieties. The hull over grain weight percentage for varieties ranged from 10.5% to 30%. The percentage of hull /grain weight varied from 7.5% to 27.33 % for NPT lines and there was significant difference among NPT lines for this trait. This trait can be used in breeding program in order to increase rice production through increasing the milling efficiency by having thinner hull.
Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are af ected by neurological disorders. More than 50 million people have epilepsy; 7.7 million new dementia cases are reported every year worldwide. Over the last decade, fewer new drugs for nervous system disorders have garnered approval in comparison to other therapeutic areas. An important step of the drug development process is the lead identification and lead optimization to develop the best pharmacokinetic profile for the desired formulation and preferred route of administration. It requires Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) to understand which modifications will best enhance af inity. Computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) is used in innovative strategies assisting in improving the binding af inities of drug candidates to specific receptors. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) have proven to be useful in phases ranging from preclinical development to the initial stages of clinical testing. The high sensitivity of these imaging modalities makes them particularly suited for exploratory investigational new drug development.
Pakistan carries one of the world's highest burdens of chronic hepatitis and mortality due to liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. In Pakistan about 10-12 million of the people are suffering from hepatitis B. World Health organization estimates that there are about 300 million of carriers of HBV all over the world. This study is conducted in the Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar. A total of 3,977 patients, belonging to different localities were screened for HBsAg by using ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) and ICT (immune chromatographic technique). Out of 3,977 cases, 81(2.03%) were positive for HBV. Co-infection was found only in 6 patients. The common risk factors associated with HBV was found such that history of dental treatment was 70%, treatment from unqualified doctor 49%, history of blood transfusion 43%, history of minor/major surgery 40%, HBV positive patients in family 35%, shaving from street barbers 32%, diabetes 16%, tattooing 11%, HCV co- infection 7.41%, sharing of drug injecting equipment's 1.2%, HIV and T.B co- infection was 0%