Economic literature shows correlation in poverty alleviation and socioeconomic development. The researchers become increasingly responsive to the poverty alleviation when giving policy suggestions to the stakeholders about socio-economic development. If socio-economic development is the function of poverty alleviation then the crucial role of the determinants of poverty alleviation cannot be challenged. Though poverty alleviation needs a multi-dimensional approach to combat the issue, however modern economic literature uses economic dimension e.g. income of the household as a determinant of poverty alleviation. Present study suggest that it's not only income that impact the poverty alleviation and socio-economic development but practically the capability of household for consumption and saving actually determines the poverty alleviation. Consequently the effective capability of the household to consume and save is the prerequisite. This study is based on the data obtained from 300 households using the proportional stratified sampling technique in the urban area of Peshawar District to quantify the factors that determine income, consumption and saving function of the urban households that in turn effect the poverty alleviation and socio-economic development. Hence the present study identifies the factors that directly or indirectly ascribed for poverty alleviation and socio-economic development in Pakistan.
Cold war between US and Soviet Union ended in 1989 but Cold War between Russia and USA is still there. US-Soviet Cold war was in fact an indirect clash of ideologies, while the New Cold War between US and Russia is an indirect clash of hegemony and influence. USA considers itself the master of the Globe after the end of First Cold War and Russia does not accept the superiority of USA and practise all those Activities, which are mainly punished by super powers. Without the consent of US, Russia is cooperating with rogue states, it makes alliances, and it attacks small countries like Georgia and Ukraine. USA is busy in all those states which were previously part of Soviet Union like Central Asian Countries. This paper states that Cold war has not ended but it has taken a pause and again it has been started between Russia and USA. Glaring examples in this regards are formation of BRICS, SCO, EEC and NATO expansionism in Afghanistan and Iraq and US USSR involvement in Middle East.
Women have been subjected to marginalization and various kinds of discrimination since ancient times, including the right of education. It was only in the late 20th century that women were allowed formal education. However, in today's world, many rights given to women by Islam are still denied, including education. The famous hadith "acquisition of knowledge is binding on all Muslims" makes it clear that education in Islam is equally important, irrespective of the sex. However, in many other religions and cultures, there is this misconception that Islam restricts women education and many other rights. This paper will use the two authentic sources (Quran and Hadith) to review status of women education in particular and women rights in general to shed light on this controversial issue. This study will probe into the reasons behind interpretations of Islamic teachings in this context. It concludes that Islam doesn't restrict women from getting education. It will also briefly explore the current situation of women education in Pakistan, and presents ways to improve their education standards.
In this study, the ARDL method is used to assess short-term and longterm relationships between private consumption, labor income, interest rate, wealth, and unemployment rate. The real private consumption model for Pakistan has been estimated by applying yearly data from 1990 to 2016. According to long-term estimates, income and wealth determine the actual national consumption. Nevertheless, the short run national private consumption is determined by current incomes, wealth, real interest rates, and the unemployment rate. Findings of this study reveal significant impact of all the observed determinants of consumption function i.e. real disposable income, wealth, real interest rate, and unemployment rate on aggregate consumption. Whereas it is noteworthy that the coefficient for wealth was minor but significant, depicting slight impact of wealth on consumption decision. These results support validity of AIH for Pakistan.
The present study aims at analyzing New Teacher Induction policy (2017) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Government that has been adopted for the induction and training of the new teachers. The study strives to explore the overall effectiveness of this policy. The data was collected through in-depth interviews and interpreted by employing thematic analysis under 4 themes. The sample was selected through multistage stratified sampling; however, selection of purposive sampling was employed for the selection of representatives of PITE, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Government. The results of the study revealed that during the formulation of the policy; none of the stakeholders were taken on board and the policy was designed by the government in collaboration with non-governmental organization. No homework was assigned to quarter concerned in order to make the policy effective, authentic and compatible to the classroom environment and international standards of teacher education. The policy was formulated without the input of stakeholder; therefore, the new inductees lack satisfaction in training and claimed that educational resources were not utilized to their effectiveness. The areas for improvement of teachers were not considered in the new policy. It is; therefore, recommended that the New Teacher Induction policy (2017) may be reviewed instantly for its pros and cons and the role of experts may be included in addition to already existing stakeholders.
This study aims to investigate empirically the various factors which affect the inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Pakistan over the period of 1980 to 2018 and used in this study are population, GDP per capita represent market size, energy consumption, inflation rate and financial development as explanatory variables. The Augmented Dickey Fuller and Philips Perron tests were used to check stationarity level of the data series; the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach was employed. The empirical results show that GDP, Inflation, Energy and population growth have positive and significant effect on FDI, while the financial development have negative and significant effect on FDI. Findings of the study suggest that the government should make suitable policies to attract more FDI into Pakistan in order to improve economic growth and thereby society welfare.
Educational policies are being made in any country to support more rigorous educational programs as evidenced in history. In all policies and plans, some important foundations are considered as essential for the required level of learners. Being a Muslim nation, Pakistan has always thought of a strong base of Islam because it is a fundamental element in the preparation of any policy. This study aims to provide a review of each educational policy setting from 1947 to the 2009 instructive plan. The main findings of the study are that all of these plans have some good suggestions for providing information on Muslim qualities, but ironically, steps related to Islamic knowledge are taken for granted. Only 1978 policy has given stress on Islamic Education and the establishment of institutions like Maktab School etc. So in the light of the evaluation, it is suggested that strong preparations has to be made to give greater attention to Islamic knowledge for secondary level learners because multicultural development occurs at this stage and it is necessary for good student behavior.
Poverty is one of the main problems faced by the Pakistani economy that hinders economic growth and development. To surge the key elements, involved in poverty, this paper examines the effect of remittances, terrorism, GDP at factor cost, public spending on education and urbanization, on poverty reduction by apply VECM techniques, on data slab 1971 to 2018. Scales of some variables were transformed to log form to normalize them. The Johansen Co-integration shows long run relationship amongst the selected variables. The empirical results reveal that remittances, GDP at factor cost, public spending on education and health significantly play its role to alleviate poverty. Government must take some necessary steps involved in remittances receiving by poor household. The social protection programs must be extended to rural areas of the country so more people can be benefited from such programs.
Consumer welfare and their satisfaction is the primary and basic objective of any government, policy makers and economists. The theory of economics encircles from welfares of the consumers. In this regard, the demand function has persuasive role in determining the welfare through purchasing power. That's why, the consumer welfare is measured from Marshallian's demand through Indirect Utility Function during 1980-2017 for Pakistan. The variables are stationary at level and in analytical technique, the NLS and ARMA (Least Regression Analysis) method was operative through econometric views (E-Views) software. The result indicates that income of the consumer has significant and positive effect, while price of goods has significantly negative effect on the consumer welfare and utility in case of Pakistan. Further, the long run association of consumption, income and consumer welfare was found. This study recommends that incremental efforts are required by the government to bring stability in the prices of goods, policies must aim and focus on provision of employment and income generating activities, control of income inequality and minimize income class disparities to maximization welfare of the individuals living in different regions and in societies of Pakistan.
The current study was conducted with the aim to explore participants' perception regarding screen time. Semi structured interviews were conducted with parent- children dyad. Total of eight interviews were conducted with four children and one of their parents. Participants were approached through purposive convenient sampling. After conducting interviews data was analyzed manually. Findings of the study revealed that participants have positive as well as negative perceptions regarding screen time. Further consequences of restricting screen time were also revealed. It was recommended that children should be given maximum 2 hours for screen. Findings also revealed some interesting themes regarding recommendations to restrict screen time.
The chief aim of the study to explore the consequence of indirect taxes on economic growth in the Asian Countries and used the panel data of 12 (twelve) Asian countries for period of 1996 to 2018 and used PMG techniques to estimate the model. This study found that the gross capital formation, political stability, labor force, inward FDI, human capital and taxes on goods and services have encouraging while domestic credit to private investment have adverse and significant consequence on economic growth in long term. The labor force and taxes on goods and services and political stability have encouraging and noteworthy consequence on economic growth in short term while gross capital formation, human capital, inward FDI, DCP have insignificant short-term consequence on economic growth. The TGS (taxes on goods and services) have encouraging and noteworthy effect on economic growth in Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, Turkey, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Bhutan while have harmful and significant effect on economic growth in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippine and Japan. This study concluded that the indirect taxation has encouraging and noteworthy effect on economic growth in the Asia. Moreover, the effect of indirect taxes was very from country to country dues its economic situation. The Political stability (PS) have also noteworthy effect on economic growth. This study recommended that indirect taxes are more helpful to collect the revenue with the presences of political stability.
Ecopreneurship is an emerging field of interest in a world grappling with achieving social and economic growth, making frugal use of natural resources as well as preventing pollution simultaneously. In this qualitative study, ten multi-stakeholders of various backgrounds, including the National Incubation Center, Trade Development Authority, Chamber of Commerce & Industry Peshawar, and non-government organizations were interviewed to explore the concept of ecopreneurship, and to find out the perceptions of multi-stakeholders about ecopreneurship. The study documented that the stakeholders perceive ecopreneurship as an eco-friendly business. Similarly, the ecopreneurs highlight problems due to unawareness of this concept of environment-friendly business. Likewise, there are several barriers to the sustainability of startups such as limited knowledge, lack of information, lack of awareness by the startup entrepreneurs, and limited funding for promoting sustainable enterprises ecopreneurship. Furthermore, the stakeholders advocate the role of digital technology towards the success of ecopreneurship as it provides a sustainable future through the use of new tools available for startups. The study further discusses theoretical, methodological, and practical implications in the novel concept of ecopreneurship.
The present research examines how the presence of students' psychological grit can boost up hope, meaning in life, and subjective happiness of 475 undergraduate students. To test this model, students' grit is used as predictor of presence of hope, meaning in life, and subjective happiness. Student's grit influences the passion and perseverance of the undergraduate students of the university to achieve their short and long-term goals. We administered grit scale, hope scale, meaning in life scale and subjective happiness scale to examine the predicted and criterion variables. Using correlation and regression (path analysis) analysis, findings of the study explored that students' psychological grit is the significant predictor of hope, meaning in life, and subjective happiness. This study was conducted only in one public university, where students come from diverse areas. Significance of the study is, it will help counselors, planners, policy makers etc. to enhance passion and perseverance of students predicting and increasing hope, meaning in life, and subjective happiness of the students in order to make them focused to achieve their goals and face the challenges of life.
Current corporate governance failure and financial scandals are the reason for the governance mechanism due to ignoring the adoption of governance mechanisms in corporate practices. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the association between governance mechanism corporate performances based on extant literature and to put a light on the current governance mechanism in the Malaysian firms. This paper emphasizes the compliance of governance mechanism and the role of MCCG in improving the performance of corporate firms. This paper highlights the issues, current corporate scandals, and failure of corporate governance mechanisms in the first and second decades of the 21st century. Various scandals and misconduct are discussed to report the problems allied to corporate governance. This paper addresses the various corporate governance theories, models, and good governance structure. The internal and external governance mechanisms have been discussed in detail to put a light on its influence on corporate performance.
This study investigated the prevalence of cognitive distortions among adolescents in Pakistan. 1258 participants recruited through purposive sampling, falling in the age range of 16-22 years and studying in different Public sector collegesof Rawalpindi Division were administered the How I Think Questionnaire. The participants were placed into the following three categories; non-clinical, borderline and clinical range based on their responses on the "HIT-Q. This Questionnaire measures four types of cognitive distortions namely minimizing / mislabeling, self-centered, assuming the worst and blaming others. Results of the study revealed that of 17.17% (216/1258) of the participants were identified in in the clinical category on self-centered subscale whereas 13.83 % (174/1258) were in the clinical category of Blaming others subscale..48 % (148/1258) responses were in the clinical category on the "assuming the worst" subscale and 14.1% in the minimizing/ mislabeling subscale. 3.00-4.89 was the clinical range for the subscale of minimizing/mislabeling and Clinical range for "assuming the worst" subscale according to manual of the HIT-Q was 3.00-4.92. Meanwhile responses also indicated that 31.8% of adolescents scored high on oppositional defiance. 37.1% in physical aggression and 60% in stealing. Results suggest that adolescents in Pakistan has severe problem of thinking in distorted way and there is dire need for counselling centers to be established in every college in Punjab Pakistan.