Authors:   Dr. Liaqat Iqbal [1], Farooq Shah [2], Shumaila Samad [3], DOI:


This essay mainly explores the connection between the administrative/operative machinery which is at work in the utopian society and the way it manipulates the mobility as well as the lives of its dwellers. The essay also discusses the manipulated locations and dislocations of the citizens in the utopian island. Michael de Certeau’s ‘Walking in the City’ has been used as a theoretical framework to approach Thomas More’s work in fiction, Utopia. The aim of the research is to explore the usual in Utopia. Usually, the Utopia or the Island itself has been considered as an ideal place to live in; however, this paper attempts to find out something less ideal or the excessive check on the citizens that mars their liberty or free will. The study argues that the lives of the citizens on the island are mutilated with almost numerical values to the extent that they almost seem serving under a servitude.

Authors:   Aisha Naseem [1], Sadia Siddique [2], DOI:


The aim of this research study was to investigate how African women suffered at the hands of colonizers and how the process of colonization affected the intercommunity female relationships through the analysis of the novel Beloved by Toni Morrison. The research study followed qualitative approach exploiting the text of the novel as a source of data collection. The research questions were answered through analysis of the text of the novel. So the study follows critical textual analysis technique. The textual analysis of the novel revealed that the African women suffered a lot at the hands of colonizers. However, it is found that unlike White men, White women helped Black women in many ways during colonization.

Authors:   Warda Zaib [1], Ayesha [2], Nayab [3], DOI:


Politeness is the use of language in conversation to show respect for one’s feelings and desires to build interpersonal relationships. It follows the rules that are considered by society and culture as appropriate. The present study aims to identify Leech’s concept of politeness in Qur’anic verses and Ahadith of Muhammad (S.A.W). The study shows the similarities and differences of Politeness by Muhammad (S.A.W) and Geoffrey Leech. The research follows the analytical method for analysis. The data is limited to 30 Quranic verses and hadiths. Geoffrey Leech’s theory of “Politeness Principles” is the foundation of the present study. The researchers have come to the conclusion that Politeness by Muhammad is universal and not confined to language only. Politeness by Muhammad (S.A.W) is practically implemented while Leech’s Politeness Principles is theoretical and it can either be rejected or accepted. although there are some differences between both the two concepts but “Politeness Principles” by Leech is rooted in Islam. The concept of Politeness was there in Islam for fourteen hundred years while Politeness Principle by Leech is the recent one.

Authors:   Zarafshan Ali [1], Rabia [2], Husan Ara [3], DOI:


Advertisements are means of communication. Advertisers plays a significant role in advertisements. Various advertisements have been studied by researchers that focused on women beauty, semiotic approach etc. This research provided deep study about beauty products of PONDS by applying CDA (critical discourse analysis) three approaches to selected advertisements. The current study has explored textual features, discursive techniques and socio-cultural practice of advertisements. Qualitative method was adopted for this study. Data indicated the textual features, discursive techniques present in advertisements and the socio-cultural role played by agency. Additional studies are needed to know more about its techniques and also study advertisements from feminist perspective. Findings of the research are the effects of ponds products on people through discourse.

Authors:   Husan Ara [1], Ayesha Zarshaid [2], DOI:


This research aims at the character and behavior analysis of Heathcliff in Emily Bronte’s novel Wuthering Heights. The researcher attempts to represent the behavior of Heathcliff in the light of Stimulus-Response theory in order to justify his strange, harsh and unusual behavior. The researcher applies the stimulus-response theory proposed by a renowned American Psychologist, John B.Watson, who asserts that the basic factor behind the formation of human behavior is Environment, and that human behavior is conditioned through the stimulus-response association, thus human behavior is a response to a stimulus. The research follows the descriptive method of analysis and close text-reading approach. The study shows that how the behavior of Heathcliff is shaped taking influence from his surroundings, people and his bitter experiences. The study proves that his harsh and bizarre nature is the product of his environment and his behavior being patronized through a particular stimulus -response bond.

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Issue No. 02