The emergence of Muslim travellers is a rapidly evolving market of the travel industry and a newly established market niche. Muslim’s lives are fused with faith-based needs, including travelling, food and staying in destinations. Halal brands are offering a pleasant appeal for Muslim consumers strictly on Islamic principles. This research recognised Muslim customers recreate and redefine their uniqueness, concerns and establish their tourism and hospitality standards through Islamic principles, but still, the challenges are more than the prospects. Pakistan's reflection in the world is shown as a Muslim destination based on Islamic rules. Pakistan is compatible with the halal tourism market as a tourist destination for the neighbouring Islamic countries. Islamic Tourism would offer foreign exchange, foster heritage, and increase people's touch by exploring family tourism and youth tourism developments in Islamic countries. The uniqueness of the research is the discovery of the untapped opportunities of Islamic tourism. Therefore, it is imperative to attract Muslim tourists, clutch the options by facilitating Islamic Tourism in Pakistan. This paper aims to devise ideas for improving Pakistan's tourism sector by contributing to the Islamic tourism segments. But unfortunately, hardly any literature in Pakistan has explored the potential of Islamic tourism. This paper examines the possibility of a different form of Islamic tourism in Pakistan to attract Muslim travellers.
The objective of this research is to evaluate Pakistan’s existing national cyber security policy in order to understand its context, effectiveness and readiness to deter cyber security challenges. As the world has become intensively connected and digitized through the internet or information technology, securing cyber space has become the biggest challenge, and has exposed the world to the existence of a novel, global threat. Since the threat to cyber security has no geographical boundaries and is beyond the traditional understanding of security, it is considered to be a paradigm shift in the area of security. The seriousness and enormity attached to cyber threats intrigued us into investigating the status of Pakistan in securing its cyber space and to analyse the National Cyber Security Policy (NCSP) that was developed by the government of Pakistan in 2021 to combat cyber threats from within and outside the country. Cyber security threats and Pakistan’s preparedness for them have also been analyzed in this research. This qualitative study intends to employ a qualitative technique for the collection of data, i.e., policy documentary analysis, to investigate the nature of cyber security policy.
The current study investigated the impact of the type of infertility (primary and secondary) on the self-efficacy and coping strategies of infertile women. The study also investigated the relationship between coping and self-efficacy. A sample of (N = 100) was included in the study out of which (n = 50) were women with primary infertility and (n = 50) were females having secondary infertility. The sample was taken from different gynecological clinics and hospitals as well as from the general population. A demographic sheet along the Infertility Self-Efficacy (ISE) and Coping Strategy Inventory (CSI) was used to measure self-efficacy and coping. Independent sample t-tests were conducted for data analysis. It was assumed that the self-efficacy of women having secondary infertility will be better than women having primary infertility. It was also hypothesized that infertile women with high self-efficacy would use adaptive coping strategies as compared to infertile women with low self-efficacy. The results of the study indicated that the self-efficacy of women having secondary infertility is better than women having primary infertility. our findings also supported our assumption that infertile women with high self-efficacy would use adaptive coping strategies as compared to infertile women with low self-efficacy.
The present study aimed to explore the interrelationship among self-esteem, psychological wellbeing and locus of control; to find out the demographic differences on these variables among breast cancer patients. Rosenberg SelfEsteem Scale, Psychological Wellbeing Scale, and The Locus of Control Scale were administered on the purposive sample of 150 breast cancer women in different cities of Pakistan. Two age groups were taken (25-35 years; younger patients) and (36-50 years; older patients), with different educational levels (above F.A.) and (below F.A.), on the basis of tenure of illness (I & II; early stages) and (III & IV; advanced stages). The correlational data found significant positive correlation of self-esteem with psychological wellbeing and locus of control. Significant positive correlation of older women was found with self-esteem and internal locus of control, and of younger women with external locus of control. Significant educational differences demonstrated high self-esteem, psychological wellbeing and internal locus of control in women with high qualification. Significant negative correlation of breast cancer stages found with self-esteem, psychological wellbeing and for locus of control, early staged (I & II) women have higher level of Internal Locus of Control, and advanced staged (III & IV) women have higher level of External Locus of Control. The study will help out in mounting ways through which clinicians or therapists can educate patients to combat the stressful psychological effects of this chronic illness.
The current investigation is aimed at exploring the effects of Murrotal therapy along with a combination of progressive muscle relaxation techniques on the quality of sleep, depression, and anxiety levels. To measure anxiety and depression the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used. To assess the quality of sleep the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. Two groups of individuals/patients were taken from the local hospital in Peshawar. One group was undergoing Murrotal therapy along with muscle relaxation. The other group was just using medications. The results of the study indicated that for the individuals who were using Murrotal therapy along with muscle relaxation their anxiety and depression levels were decreased.
The article deals with the research design used in the universities of Pakistan for the discipline of Urdu language and literature. Urdu research design is different from that of other social sciences. Its style of chapterization, presentation, reporting and citation does not match any of the other disciplines. Formulation of hypothesis, research objectives and research questions are not made a part of the reports. Some of the theses even do not have any findings or conclusion. That is why these researches do not address the problems. The theses and dissertations do are not clear about achieving of the objectives and goals. For this study, fifty theses of Pakistani universities were randomly selected and analyzed to find out the strengths and flaws of their research design. Based on the findings, recommendations and suggestions for the improvement of the design have also been presented.
Due to the sudden shift in teaching methods, the pandemic has adversely obstructed students' psychological condition. Persons living with mental illness use religion and spirituality to cope, especially in stressful times. Religious-spiritual coping can help reduce depression, anxiety, stress, and aggression. An online quantitative survey was conducted. The DASS21, Buss and Perry BAQ, and Religiosity and Spirituality Scale for youth (RSSY) were used to collect data. The study included 420 university students, of which 48.33% and 51.66 % were males and females respectively. The average age of participants was 21. Third-wave COVID-19 found religion/spirituality to be a significant alleviating factor of depression, anxiety, stress, and aggression. The study also found significant correlations between depression, anxiety, stress, and aggression in males and females. The findings provided insight into how to apply religious/spiritual intervention tactics to mitigate Covid-19's disadvantages.
The present study aims to explore how the family members of the irregular emigrants who were left behind in Pakistan describe their narratives regarding the purpose of irregular migration of their male family members. This study is based on a qualitative research design by employing a constructivist epistemological standpoint. The current research's target population comprises the male family members of the irregular emigrants in the rural areas of district Gujrat, Pakistan. For the present study, a snowball sampling technique has been used to select the respondents because it was challenging to identify irregular emigrants due to their hidden nature. In the first phase of the data collection, some male family members of the emigrants were contacted working in a public sector organization in district Gujrat with the principal researcher. Later on, these initial contacts facilitated the primary researcher to approach various family members of the irregular emigrants in the peripheral villages of Gujrat city. The fieldwork comprised in-depth interviews, which were started with a broader discussion on the issue of irregular migration. The initial four in-depth interviews were analyzed parallel, which led to the emergence of new themes for further interviews. A total of thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted until saturation. Three major themes emerged from the data as poverty, inequality and migration; social class and competition; and Europe as a dream land.
The purpose of this paper is to check the effect of financial ratios and macroeconomic variable on financial distress. The population of this study is 559 non-financial companies that are listed on the Pakistan stock exchange. The final sample size is 285 non-financial companies for the period of 2013- 2017. Financial distress is dependent variable that shows categorical in nature. Therefore, this paper used logistic regression for the analysis. The result shows that profitability (EBITTA) has a negative significant relationship with financial distress, but RETA shows a positive significant relationship with financial distress. The result shows that liquidity ratio (WCTA) has a negative significant relationship with financial distress, but CACL shows a positive and insignificant relationship with financial distress. Additionally, Inflation has a positive significant relationship with financial distress. In the context of Pakistan, previous studies are limited to explore the link between financial and macroeconomic variables on financial distress. This paper also contributes to the literature and fills this gap. This study also indicates that to investigate the association between financial and macroeconomic variables on financial distress in the emerging market. Previous studies are limited to using this model and methodology especially in the context of Pakistan.
Examining the claim-making in research articles of Islamic studies published in Pakistan by Pakistani authors, in particular, has not got the attention of the linguists yet. The objective of the current study is to explore the nature of claims by examining Boosters (authoritative and assertive claims) and Hedges (softer and negotiable claims) made by the authors of Islamic studies research articles in the context of Pakistan. To examine the linguistic nature of these claims, mix methodology was used by utilizing the list of claim markers proposed under metadiscourse theory. The study found that the ratio between Boosters and Hedges employed by the authors of Islamic Studies is around 2:1 which is not aligned with international practice i.e. 3:1. The most noticeable academic writing ex
The awareness and recognition concerning female education in general and female higher education in particular began in 70s. It has been realized that female education can bring a change in society and can play vital role in women empowerment and hence in socio-economic development. A new lexis was introduced i.e. WID (Women in Development). If educated people earn more than uneducated people, shouldn't the same thing happen for females? Empirical studies about women education have revealed that education of women leads to many economic and social benefits that includes increase in wage levels. Female education is an essential instrument of achieving selfrespect, awareness, empowerment, improved level of health and living. This research is aimed to determine the impact of Female Higher Education on standard of living of the household; the impact of female higher education on family income and the effects of female higher education on health indicators. The data has been collected from 150 employed married women in Peshawar during 2019. The data is collected about Demographics, health indicators, social indicators and economic indicators of the family of the respondent. Chi-Square test is applied to analyze the collected data. The data analysis showed strong correlation between Female Higher Education, Health Indicators, Social Indicators and Economic Indicators. The research carried out concluded that there is a positive relationship between Female Higher Education and Socio Economic Status of the Family that in turn impact the socio economic development of the Peshawar city.