Pakistan Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Research

Authors:   Mashaal Javed [1], Muhamma Babar Jamil [2], Shabbir Ahmad [3], DOI:


This research is based on the critical discourse analysis of memes in Pakistani social media to reveal the hidden meanings and messages behind them. It analyzes how memes can be used as a form of social and political commentary and how they reflect society. Memes are an interesting phenomenon in the modern digital world. A meme is a simple way to convey a particular message as a form of funny illustration and visualization. Some memes are intended just to be funny, while others have additional meaning or purpose. Memes are taken randomly from the internet and then analyzed using critical discourse analysis. Discourse is the use of language or a communicating image within a certain context for a specific purpose. The theoretical framework is multimodal. Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis is the systematic integration of linguistic and visual aids to contribute some particular socially perceived contextual meaning(Kress 2009). Through this research work, the readers will get critical ideas to recognize the hidden meanings and messages behind memes in this modern digital world. It also discusses the functions of memes in making or changing someone’s perspectives. This research will also help the upcoming researchers to examine how memes reflect our society and how they are used as a tool engaged in civic discourse.

Authors:   Bushra Zulfiqar [1], Abdul Rashid [2], Muhammad Akram [3], DOI:


Innovation is an important requisite for firm growth. It provides competitive advantage to firms in both domestic market and in international market. Past studies have examined the effect of different types of innovation and their pair-wise combination on exports. However, the role of all types on innovation may have more complementary effects on exports of firms. The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of quadruple-complementarity among different innovative strategies in promoting exports of firms using the data of World Bank Innovation surveys and different World Bank Enterprise surveys of year 2013 for Pakistan, Bangladesh, and of year 2014 for India. Estimation is carried out using logistic regression. The finding indicates that existence of quadruple complementarity among different innovation strategies in innovation-export relationship, suggesting that, export’s sales of firm will be greater by simultaneously adopting all innovation strategies compared to adoption of either strategy. This study help in accessing integrated effect of different types of innovation strategies on exports of firm.

Authors:   Ayesha Ashraf [1], Uzooba Hureem [2], Ahmad Bilal Khilji [3], DOI:


In Pakistan, the female labor force participation rate is 22.0% and almost 36% of employed females are involved in the informal economy and the most of them are home-based workers (HBWs). As per the UN-Women report, HBWs (65% of them are women) contributed nearly Rs. 400 billion through their earnings to the economy. This figure is about 3.8% of the total GDP in the year 2013-14. Although they have a massive contribution in the informal economy, they are overlooked and not included in the mainstream market economy. They are confronting with the inter-generational poverty as their earnings has not been influential in decreasing their poverty level. There is an immense requirement to enhance their capacity for the better productivity and improved living standards. Against this backdrop, the basic objective of this study is to empirically investigate the role of four factors namely, (1) human capital (2) middle man (3) social capital, and (4) awareness of laws in determining the labor productivity of female HBWs in Punjab. “The Punjab Home-Based Workers Survey 2016” dataset, gathered by the Bureau of Statistics Punjab, has been used for analysis. It is observed that the labor productivity of female home-based workers is on a higher side who have awareness of labor laws, received training, a higher education, participated in industrial demonstrations, and don’t depend on middleman for obtaining the raw material. The results provide evidence to suggest policy implications and implementation of regulations regarding HBWs for financial empowerment

Authors:   Dr. Muhammad Tahir Rashid [1], Dr. Nargis Abbas [2], Dr. Uzma Ashiq [3], DOI:


China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is considered a mega project for the regional connectivity with a potential to be a game changer for the entire region. CPEC is a multi-billion project, reserved for the energy and infrastructure respectively. This paper investigates the impact of CPEC on socio economic development in Pakistan through the years. The most significant impact has been observed in the employment sector. Due to this project, 30,000 jobs will be provided to young unemployed professionals. In addition, transportation costs will be minimized and Infrastructure will also be improved by constructing motorway between Lahore and Karachi. Moreover, important impact of CPEC is to resolve the power shortage. Along these positive aspects, CPEC also has some negative impacts like, the risk of higher income disparity not only in Pakistan but also between the China and Pakistan. The reason behind this is the tax exemption on Chinese. Secondly, due to capital flight, trade deficit will increase. In the light of above discussion, it is suggested that Pakistan have to wake up and work for their own interests, and cultivate the required skills and compound talents in the Pakistani youth in higher education institutions to increase their employability in Chinese companies.

Authors:   Javeria Noor Sawal [1], Mahnoor Shahid [2], Hafsa Khan [3], DOI:


The Russian invasion of Ukraine erupted on February 24th, 2022, and has brought huge devastation to the Ukrainian people. In early 2014, the escalation of the Ukrainian crisis brought an end to the postCold-War status quo in Eastern Europe. Since, the region remained under crisis and is mainly over Russia’s demands for an end to the NATO’s eastward expansion. Russia’s annexation of Crimea (a part of Ukraine) remained a major bone of contention between the two sides. Hence, Ukraine’s inclination toward the western camp created insecurity for Russia as it would be no more an arduous task for the US to contain the communist country. Thereby, to break such an occurrence Russia invaded Ukraine. Later on, Russia affirms the withdrawal of its troops from Ukraine and guaranteed to restrain future attacks and aggressions only on the terms of the ceasefire talks. This paper mainly aims at providing an in-depth analysis of the Russian invasion of Ukraine and shed some light on the western response to the entire scenario.

Authors:   Abdul Hanan [1], Dr. Rahmat Ullah Bhatti [2], Dr. Muhammad Asgar Ali [3], DOI:


This study was conducted to find the emotional intelligence of administrators and its relationship with students ‘performance in cadet colleges in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) at secondary level. The sample of the study was 24 principals, vice principals and Director of studies of these cadet colleges. A survey was conducted by using 79 items Questionnaire with five-point Likert scale. Main factors of questionnaire were selfawareness, self-regulation, social awareness; relationship management and self-efficacy of teachers. Academic performance results were collected from matric result of these eight cadet colleges published in the respective boards’ gazette. The study concluded that positive relationship was found between the emotional intelligence and students’ performance of secondary school students. Impact of Emotional intelligence of principals has highly satisfactory score and the students have obtained mostly, A plus grade score which is more than 90 percent. Very few have average result. The major recommendations include Emotional intelligence training /refresher cadre be imparted to all principals and staff. All elite institutions students, teachers and heads of the country be familiarized with importance of emotional intelligence.

Authors:   Muhammad Imran Khan [1], Shah Hussain Awan [2], Qazi Sikandar [3], DOI:


In the workplace, justice and equality are important factors in the performance of employees. A variety of aspects of the work are linked to the practises and procedures that are used to increase productive capacity. Because of this, employee satisfaction depends on the quality of the job performed in accordance with the principles of procedural justice and distributive justice. Research conducted in the banks and examined the application of the working practices of the procedural and distributive justice. Three Banks examined for this study these are National Bank of Pakistan (NBP), Habib Bank Limited (HBL) and United Bank Limited (UBL). The sample size from HBL is 27 respondents, UBL examined with 18 respondents and NBP with 42 respondents. The responses from these Banks proved with final outcomes that HBL employees are found satisfactory from the working environment in relation with procedural and distributive justice. UBL employee’s procedural justice not influencing the employee’s satisfaction while the roles of procedural and distributive justices are important for employee’s satisfaction in NBP. Therefore, procedural and distributive justices-based practices are important for the satisfaction of the employees well of these Banks.

Authors:   Sobia Kanwal [1], Dr. Farkhunda Rasheed Choudhary [2], DOI:


To cope up with this competitive digital era, students’ top priority should be tech-fluency. Therefore, education system must be embedded with essential 21st century skills to confront the life challenges in this competitive 21st century. The study delimited to three skills out of most highlighted fifteen components of 21st century skills. These three essential abilities were Critical and Logical Thinking Skill, Digital Literacy Skills and 3Rs Skills. Population of the study consisted of 151 F.G. secondary schools of Islamabad. The number of sampled science students was 100. The number of sampled arts students was 100. Therefore, 200 sample of students was taken for data collection through stratified random sampling. The survey approach using scales to measure the perceived level of critical thinking skill, digital literacy skill and 3Rs skill was employed in the study design. Hypotheses were tested by taking alpha 0.05, as level of significance. Data was analyzed using ttest. The findings revealed that there was no significant difference in the overall perceived level of 21st century skills among secondary schools students when compared according to their academic stream. It was also found that science group students were higher on digital literacy, whereas students showed non-significant difference was found in the perceived level of critical thinking. It is concluded that the significant difference was found with respect to digital literacy skill.

Volume No. 05

Issue No. 02