Authors:   Shabbir Ahmad [1], Muhammad Babr Jamil [2], Mashaal Javed [3], DOI:


Ethnicity can be considered as the sub-division of Racism by which some people consider themselves as superior and others as inferior. Ethnicity is the social grouping of people who have some common attributes based on geography but they may vary on the basis of culture, language and customs. Ethnicity is a worldwide issue which has a long history and deep roots in various parts of the world including Islamic countries such as Afghanistan. Afghanistan is a multiethnic group and there is major 14 ethnic groups with an approximate division of these ethnic groups into Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and others. The present study is the study of ethnicity in Afghanistan as highlighted in the novel The Kite Runner (2003) written by an AfghanAmerican writer Khaled Hosseini. This research work critically analyzes the role of language and discourse in identifying social and cultural problems of ethnicity along with power relations, and resultant oppression with reference to this novel. Fairclough’s 3D model of Critical Discourse Analysis (1995) and Van Dijk’s (2008) model of discursive analysis have been applied for this qualitative research. The findings reveal that Khaled Hosseini has used language as a medium for the identification of social problems related to ethnicity between Sunni Pashtuns and Shi’a Hazara, and associated power relations practiced in Afghanistan.

Authors:   Farman Ullah [1], Wen Jen [2], Liaqat Iqbal [3], DOI:


The current research highlights the comparative examination of the play Hamlet and its adaptation, The Banquet. The present study is qualitative and applies the close reading analysis method. The Banquet, directed by Chinese filmmaker Feng Xiao Gang, was officially the first Chinese-adapted version of Hamlet when it was displayed in 2006. The Chinese culture has a great impact on the adaptation of Hamlet, such as Chinese uniqueness i.e., a martial art which is good for self-defense, healthy body, relieving stress, and self-confidence are given to the play and including the Chinese Nuo mask and its variations in Feng Xiaogang's movie is the interpretation of the play. Feng seeks to Sinicize the play and interweave cultural components. The filmmaker highly emphasizes the martial arts cinema frame as the Chinese cultural touch used to change a Western play into a Chinese film. This technique works well to replace Western cultural aspects with philosophy, values, and the significance of Chinese culture. The current paper examines how much the adaptation version (The Banquet) is Sinicized to connect the Chinese culture to the Western culture. The paper also explores the differences between various characters in The Banquet and Hamlet.

Authors:   Hassin Ur Rehman [1], Dr. Muhammad Khan Sangi [2], DOI:


Edgar Allan Poe is an American well-known short story writer. He discusses numerous themes related to society including psychological issues and supernatural events. Most of the researchers argue that Poe is a supernatural writer however, the researcher believes that most of Poe’s events in the stories have natural interpretations which are being directed to supernatural by other researchers. The researcher applies Todorov’s Theory of Fantastic to investigate the natural and supernatural events of the story. This theory helps to distinguish between natural and supernatural events. Conclusively, it appears that the events which have natural explanations such as hallucination, delusion, illusion, delirium, and deceived senses come in the realm of Uncanny. The events, which do not have natural explanations are directed to supernatural or fantasy, are called Marvellous. The researcher explores other research articles to support the topic under study.

Authors:   Muhammad Zulqarnain [1], Shahzeb Shafi [2], Muhammad Hamzah Masood [3], DOI:


Mediacy (mediateness), meditation (medialization and re-medialization) and focalization (point of view) occur on political agendas. Islamophobia’s political agenda is presently mediated by cultural, intellectual, social, and religious perspectives. This political agenda aligns with Chatman’s narrative focalization, which is most compatible with Stanzel’s narrative scenario (first person, authorial, and figural narrative situation). Both eastern and western narratives mediate via distinct story situations that reflect their perspectivization of the agenda of Islamophobia. The current study qualitatively examines four (4) speeches by eastern and western political leaders. These speech instances of Muslim and non-Muslim world leaders, accessed through the purposive sampling technique, are analyzed with the help of the theoretical background of Mediacy, Mediation, and Focalization. It is concluded that mediacy lies in the Islamophobic narrative. The mediation also changes the narrative, which is also affected by Chatman’s three forms of point of view, which filter the narrative from perceptual, conceptual, and interest-based points of view.

Authors:   Amna Naveed [1], Dr. Muhammad Shaban Rafi [2], DOI:


This study explores the linguistic forms which are employed in the war time songs to evoke the sentiments of patriotism. The present study utilizes Discourse Historical Approach to better understand and analyze the lyrics of the songs. DHA’s four levels of analysis and the sociopolitical circumstances, were employed to look for commonly emerging themes in the selected text. The study reveals the themes of persuasion to join jihad, nationalism, interstate conflict and intertextuality. The Pakistani War songs evoke the sentiments of patriotism with a focus on tophi, figurative speech and other linguistic devices such as nomination, adjectives, and hyperboles. Findings of this study may be utilized while writing patriotic songs to evoke social cohesion among multi-ethnic citizens and call for peace on the borders.

Volume No. 02

Issue No. 02