Previous studies have shown that Childhood Exposure to Domestic Violence (CEDV) has been demonstrated to hold an important role in violent and unethical behaviors. Little is known about the relationship between CEDV and moral disengagement, the role of self-control and resilience. This study investigated whether CEDV has an impact on moral disengagement through the indirect effect of self-control and conditional effect of resilience. This study utilized purposive convenient sampling. The sample consisted of N = 562 (men; n = 273; women; n = 289) with age range between 16 to 25 years (M = 19.27; SD = 2.50). The sample was collected from madaaris, college, and university students from different provinces of Pakistan. The measures used in this study included the Urdu version of CEDV, Moral Disengagement Scale, Corner and Davidson Resilience, and Brief Self-Control Scale. The results indicated that CEDV significantly positively predicted moral disengagement through the indirect effect of self-control. Resilience significantly moderated the association among self control and moral disengagement whereas the resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between CEDV and moral disengagement. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
The purpose of the present study is to develop and validate the COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Scale through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and the resulting factors confirmed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The sample of EFA comprised the general population (n = 311) in which male (n = 140) and female (n = 171) ages ranged from 18 to 60 years (M= 26.38 and SD =6. 79). Factor loading of .30 was set as selection criteria of an item in the scale. Using Varimax rotation method, EFA presented five meaningful factors for COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Scale and factors named as Belief in myths & conspiracy theories (14 items), Perceived effectiveness (10 items), Religiosity (4 items), Social and Media Influence (9 items), and Misinformation (5 items). For CFA sample of the general population (n = 300) in which male (n =150) and female (n =150) ages ranged from 18 to 60 years (M=24.56 and SD =4.95). Alpha reliability for the subscales of the COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Scale was calculated, it was .95(Belief in myths &conspiracy theories), .92 (Perceived effectiveness), .61(Religiosity), .72(Social and Media Influence), .72(Misinformation). Overall COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Scale developed for the general population is a reliable and valid measure to assess COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Pakistani culture.
The present study was designed to investigate the impact of prosocial behavior and the moderating role of teachers’ self-efficacy on school adjustment of physically handicapped students. To assess the impact of prosocial behavior the sample of physically handicapped students (154 male students and 146 female students) ages ranged 11 to 17 (M = 15. 38, SD = 1.78) was taken from different special education centres in Islamabad and Mardan district of KP. The data were analyzed in SPSS version-26. Findings show that there exists a significant positive relationship between prosocial behavior and school adjustment of physically handicapped students. Furthermore, the results show that if the teacher has high self-efficacy the number of school adjustments will be enhanced. The study has several implications in the special education sector and the daily life of physically handicapped students.
COVID-19 pandemic has been context altering as it has and still alters the dimensions of social, economic, and intimate lives of people. With reference to this, parenting; an already tough task, in the disarray caused by COVID-19 pandemic, has elevated parental burnout and declined mental health of married individuals. In the present context, it is imperative to understand how parents are coping and managing their lives. The present research aimed to examine prevalence of both parental burnout and mental health and how parental burnout affects married individuals. For the present research, married individuals (N = 350) within an age range of 25 to 65 years (M = 35.42, SD = 9.29) were approached from different cities of Pakistan through purposive sampling. Parental burnout and mental health were measured using Parental Burn Out Scale (Roskam et al., 2018) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Severe parental burnout symptoms prevailed in .6% parents. Females had moderate symptoms of declined mental health as compared to males (11.1 % depressed, 25.4 % anxiety, and 7.9 % stress). The findings indicated significant positive association between parental burnout and mental health, indicating declined mental health among married individuals. The prevalence of parental burnout and declined mental health among parents indicated the gravity of the situation for developing countries where most of the mothers are stay-at-home spouses and have limited resources to look after their mental health. The findings of the present study could provide a baseline for clinicians to design interventions for parents to cope with stress of parenting as well as taking care of their mental health not only in the on-going pandemic but in general stressful times.
Most military services require long hours, which may have a negative impact on their social and personal lives. This study made an effort to pinpoint and examine the stress, health, and marital satisfaction of military spouses. A sample of 120 married couples from three districts in Pakistan were contacted (60 civilian and 60 military) (Kaaryian, Abbottabad and Swabi). Marital Satisfaction Scale (Coral Gables Counseling Center), Psychological Well-Being Scale (Ryff, 1989), and Perceived Stress Scale were the research questionnaires that were utilized (Cohen et al., 1983). According to the study's findings, military spouses are less satisfied and happier in their marriages than spouses of civilians. Additionally, the findings indicated a positive relationship between marital satisfaction and general well-being and a negative relationship between these two and stress. In the study, no gender differences were discovered. The study's findings point out a number of military services components that require special consideration and can be handled by mental health professionals.