Present study was an effort to investigate the ethnomedicinal flora of village Tarakai, District Swabi, Pakistan. Result of this study showed 59 medicinally important species of plant belongs to 45 different families the dominant families include Solanaceae, Rhamnaceae and Liliaceae. These medicinal plants are used for the cure of different diseases from these39.2% plant species are used for the cure of digestive problem, 26.7% for skin disorders and 12.5 % for respiratory disorders and rest for other disorders. Our study also showed some recipes documented by the local peoples for the cure of disease and the mode of preparation and their mode of administration were also documented by the local inhabitants including both male and females. The result of this study may be helpful for further drug investigation.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health burden in Pakistan, where it bears the highest prevalence rate 5%. It is estimated that about 10 million peoples in Pakistan diagnose with hepatitis C. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Madan region KPK, A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pathology laboratory, Mardan Medical Complex (MMC) in the month of Feb-2020. For a quantitative analysis, a total of 687 participant with age range from 1 years to 80 years olds (both male 345 and female 342) were selected, who provide their blood samples for HCV antibodies tastings. The sero-prevalence rate was found to be 3.20% (22/687). The majority of the seropositive patients were males i.e., 12 and were in the age group of 21-40 year. Prevalence of HCV in the present study revealed the need for proper screening and preventive measures to control this disease.
Lignin is a phenolic biopolymer and a complex recalcitrant compound found in the wastewater effluent of the pulp and paper industry. Wastewater generated by the pulp and paper industry is having lignin as a major part in the form of black liquor, which poses serious hazards for the ecosystem along with health risks. Biological methods including the use of micro-organisms to degrade lignin by the enzymatic battery of various bacteria and especially fungi proved out to be effective. The present study includes the application of indigenously isolated fungal strains 81 from the effluent wastewater of a local pulp and paper industry of Pakistan. The strain was grown on lignin amended minimal salt media for the screening of best lignin degrader for determining their capability of lignin degradation and color reduction. Absorbance for lignin degradation and color reduction was measured at 280nm and 465nm respectively on the spectrophotometer. The results proclaim fungal strain 81 identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, after molecular characterization (accession no. MW132910 in NCBI data base) possess the potential to degrade lignin. Hence, it could help in the removal of lignin from toxic industrial wastewater.
The most frequent bacterial which is cause of gastroenteritis in humans is Campylobacter. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports around 1.3 million cases of Campylobacter infection in the US occurs per year. This review was designed with the aim to discuss in detail the root causing agents of Campylobacter infection, its diagnostic and prevention methods. Campylobacteriosis starts with the attachment of the pathogenic bacteria to intestinal cells, followed by colonization and, lastly, penetration of the cells following ingestion by the host. Consumption of raw milk, undercooked poultry, and contaminated water have all been associated with Campylobacter infection. Intestinal mucosal Campylobacter toxins proliferate, necrotizing the intestinal villi. A toxin known as cytolethal distending toxins (CDT) damages DNA by acting as a deoxyribonuclease (DNase). Old aged patients and immunocompromised patients are more at risk of morbidity, mortality, and long-term sickness. In addition to additional virulence and survival factors, this review gathers information on motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, and stress response variables. It has been found that mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobectriosis. Various preventive measures can be adopted to decrease the transmission of the pathogens and the subsequent disease such as the vaccination of the poultry, the health surveillance and the precise food hygiene all over the entire production chain.
Background and Aim: Globally Hepatitis B is life-threatening problem including in Pakistan with an estimated incidence rate of 3% in the general population. According to recent findings Pakistan has an enormous burden of HBV infection, but very little attention has been drawn in terms of the molecular epidemiology of HBV. Till now HBV has been categorized into 10 genotypes and different genotypes exhibit different pathogenicity and response towards the treatment, so this research study was planned to evaluate the current status of different HBV genotypes prevailing in Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP).
Method: A collection of 550 blood samples was carried out from chronically infected HBV- positive patients and tested by ICT that was further confirmed for HBV DNA with qualitative PCR and followed by type-specific PCR to identify the prevalence of specific HBV genotypes. Sequencing was performed on the respective genotype and a phylogenetic study was done using the MEGA 6.0 tool.
Results: All samples were diagnosed HBV positive. Genotype D was recorded as the most widely distributed (90%) while 10% were detected positive for genotype C and no other genotype was found in our study in district Peshawar. Phylogenetic analysis of obtained sequences shows close homology with already reported strains of HBV.
Conclusion: The only genotype predominant was genotype D in the District Peshawar region which is the most commonly found genotype in Pakistan and the neighboring countries.