International Journal of Psychological and Behavioural Research (IJPBR)

Authors:   Waqar Ahmed [1], Farkhunda Rasheed Choudhary [2], Masood Ahmed [3], DOI:


Teaching profession is one of the most painstaking in the world and is highly susceptible to psychological and physical health issues. Throughout the professional career, teachers suffer anxiety. This study aimed to determine the anxiety level of science teachers at FGEI Cantt. / Garrison institutes. It throws light upon the factors which cause anxiety. To find the level of anxiety a questionnaire was adapted and the data was collected. In this study teacher’s anxiety was measured by using the adapted Job Anxiety Scale of Schmalbach et al. The anxiety questionnaire was comprising 15 items. A Sample of 96 teachers from 20 FG Cantt/Garrison schools in Rawalpindi Cantt was selected for the study. For analysis of the data the SPSS tool version 26 was used. Teachers’ anxiety level was found moderate. The purpose of this study was to find out the difference of anxiety between male and female teachers and found that there was no significant difference between the anxiety of male and female teachers. In the comparison of anxiety mean for the class. Significant mean difference was found regarding anxiety of class 9th and 10th teachers. Moreover, there was no significant difference among the subjects on the anxiety of science teachers. It is recommended to take necessary measures are necessary to reduce the anxiety of science teachers. The findings have significant implications for all stakeholders in education. However, it is anticipated that addressing factors including as workload, student behavior, and working circumstances might help instructors to minimize anxiety.

Authors:   Sara Imtiaz [1], Anila Kamal [2], DOI:


By reviewing Pakistani literature on men and masculinities, existing research seems to be in a budding phase. Current study thus targeted to develop a psychometrically sound scale for measuring masculinity ideologies in a Pakistani culture so as to give thrust to the masculinity studies. The scale development proceeded in three phases. First phase involved generation of item pool based on an earlier qualitative study that explored about indigenous masculinity ideologies. In second phase, factor structure was explored using exploratory factor analysis where Principal Axis Factoring was utilized with Promax rotation. For this purpose, 421 participants (Men = 268, Women = 173) were recruited with age range of 19 to 51 years, through convenience sampling. A four factors structure was yielded that comprised of 31 items explaining 48.70% variance. Final phase involved performing the confirmatory factor analysis on the items finalized in the previous phase using an independent sample. This sample (Men = 219, Women = 133) ranged in age from 20 to 44 years. The tested model was confirmed after adding three modification indices. The scale yielded good alpha reliabilities for the emerged factors. Weak to moderate correlations of these factors with Gender Role Attitude Scale (Kamal & Saqib, 2004) provided for discriminant validity evidence. This scale thus outlines the masculinity ideologies of male privilege and power, traditional roles and responsibilities, avoiding effeminacy, and restricted emotionality. A useful measure was thus acquired to provide impetus to clinical and research work focusing on masculinity in indigenous context.

Authors:   Anoosha Tabassum [1], Rayna Sadia [2], Saira Khan [3], DOI:


Although infertility is a medical problem, however, the phenomenon is widely researched. With each passing day, infertile individuals undergo various personal and social challenges. Particularly, family pressure to carry on the progeny creates an unmounted pressure which ultimately affects their marital union. These factors altogether create an unprecedented scenario for their marital life. Considering this, the present research aimed to assess how family and social support could help in reducing the mounting infertility-related stress. Infertile individuals were approached at their offices, homes, as well as at infertility centres in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, and Attock using snowball and purposive sampling techniques. The participants were invited to complete a set of questionnaires including Fertility Problem Inventory, ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Hypotheses testing revealed non-significant association of family and social support with both infertility-related stress and marital satisfaction. However, family support (subscale) had positive association with infertility-related stress and negative association with marital satisfaction. Similarly, marital union of married individuals was negatively affected by stress due to infertility. However, infertility-related stress accounted for 7% variance in marital satisfaction. The study further found non-significant moderating role of family and social support between infertility-related stress and marital satisfaction. These results provided a baseline for future studies in Pakistan, in exploration of indigenous protective factors against marital dissatisfaction among infertile individuals. The present study further highlighted the importance and appropriateness of family support for childless individual. From the current study, the conclusion can be drawn that the family members (specifically in collectivistic cultures)

Authors:   Rukhsar [1], Mohsin-Bin-Iqbal [2], Summiya Ahmad [3], DOI:


This study focused on the relationship of social support with happiness and subjective well-being of university students during the COVID-19 outbreak. Primary data was used to acquire the objectives of the study and online forms were used to collect data from a sample of 200 students. The results revealed a positive correlation between social support & happiness (r = .58, p < .01) and subjective well-being (r=.64, p< .01) and also a positive correlation between happiness and subjective well-being (r=.59, p< .01). The differences between males and females in this regard were also significant with females scoring higher on all variables. Additionally, as the findings suggest that social support, particularly from family, friends, and significant others, can play an important role in promoting happiness and subjective well-being among university students during times of crisis it can lead to the strengthening of support networks and also help academic authorities pay special attention to the needs of the students

Authors:   Komal Hayat [1], Dr. Tahira Yousaf [2], DOI:


The current study aims to find out the difference between the level of caregiver burden and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress) among mothers of children with Physical illness (Major Thalassemia) and psychological illness (Autism). Sample size (N=100), 50 in each group. Mothers filled out a booklet containing 1) Inform Consent 2) Demographic Form 3) Burden Assessment Scale (BAS) Urdu version contains 19 items has a reliability of 0.78 and 4) Urdu version of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale DASS-21 which has 21 items and good reliability 0.93 coefficient alpha. The study hypothesized that (1) There will be a significant difference in the level of caregiver burden between mothers of children with physical illness (thalassemia) and mothers of children with psychological illness (autism). 2) There will be a significant difference in the level of psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress) between mothers of children with physical illness (thalassemia) and mothers of children with psychological illness (autism). Moreover, an independent ttest was done to compare the level of burden and distress among both groups and it was revealed that the difference is insignificant between both groups.

Volume No. 03

Issue No. 01