Authors:   Aiman Naeem [1], Mehran Ali [2], DOI:


This study aimed to analyze the character of Mata Hari as a new woman, who goes to any extent to safeguard her desires and to materialize her dreams in a patriarchal society, where she is systematically kept oppressed and is at last executed. However, she strongly resists discrimination and oppression by demonstrating the traits of a new woman. This study analyzed Hari’s character from a feminist perspective and magnified her strong resistance against subjugation. This study used textual analysis via a qualitative method to explore the newness in Mata Hari’s character. The finding revealed Mata Hari in The Spy is an unusual, powerful, courageous, sensational, free-sighted, and independent woman who dared to defy the conventions of her times. She is not presented as a dependent, weak, and passive woman, as women used to be in her time. She is found as a woman of great charisma and an influential feminine figure.

Authors:   Muhammad [1], Zahid Ali [2], Khursheed Ahmad [3], DOI:


The present research study aims to investigate, analyze, explore, and describe the establishment of Argument Structure in Balochi verb phrases in terms of the assignment of Recipient, Location as well as Beneficiary Theta Roles in consort with Thematic Relations. The current study intends to see that how arguments are allotted Recipient, Location as well as Beneficiary Theta Roles/Semantic Roles by Balochi verbs. The objective of this study is to explore and establish the Argument Structure and Thematic structure in terms of Recipient, Location as well as Beneficiary Theta Roles/Semantic Roles by Balochi verbs. The assignment of Recipient, Location as well as Beneficiary Theta Roles are analyzed, explored, and described under the theoretical framework of Carnie’s (2006) Theory of Theta/Thematic Roles. Distinguishing between Goal and Location is quite confusing. The Goal is the entity towards which the action of the verb moves. The Location is the entity where the action of the verb is taking place. Theta-Criterion theory declares that a preposition cannot be used to designate a Theta Role but if a noun appears in a prepositional phrase (PP), it receives a Theta Role that is determined by the function it performs in the sentence (Chomsky, 1988; Carnie, 200i7). The data for the concerned research work were collected by means of unstructured interviews from native speakers of Balochi language. The data are collected from natural verbal/oral form of Balochi sentences. The qualitative method has been applied in consort with analytical, explorative, and descriptive research designs (Neuman, 2005; Kumar, 2011; Creswell, 2013; 2014). The analysis also illustrates that a slight morphological, lexical, and phonological modification in verbs become the cause of completely new shape as well as the meaning of the Balochi verb.

Authors:   Farman Ullah [1], Abdul Majid [2], Wen Jen [3], DOI:


My heart aches to see you fight for chairs; Only poor masses are crushed with open arms by bears. I saw many deaths in houses and houses in deaths, But thou made me unable to breathe. We are drowning up to the neck in our blood; No one is there to come, see and judge masses smeared with mud Never ever tell the truth to live a life, Dumb, deaf, and blind can live here. (Farman Ullah) Informed by the close reading of the novel Twilight in Delhi (1940) by Ahmed Ali during and under the impact of colonization from the perspectives of sociopolitical aspects of the extraordinary situation that has been faced by common people through ordinary words. The present study aims to examine the novel Twilight in Delhi, how the "“Self”" and the "“Other”" interact within the historical backdrop of British colonialism and the "massacre and destruction in Delhi in 1857" (Yahya: 2013) as it is portrayed in the book Twilight in Delhi. It contends that prejudice, an imbalance of power, and oppression characterize this relationship. The research looks at the negative effects of this uneven dynamic, such as violence, theft, and cultural fusion. The novel's author gives the colonized Indians a voice by denouncing British colonial power and urging resistance to it. The conclusion emphasizes the necessity to confront and end colonial dominance while highlighting the harmful impacts of the "“Self”" and "“Other”" connection.

Authors:   Dr. Mehnaz [1], Kainat Zeb [2], DOI:


The way culture Molds human needs and adapts them to the requirements of social status are some of the concerns of the authors who are interested in delineating psychosocial bonding through fictitious characters and situations. In this paper, I ask what physiological needs are and how they control the behavior of the characters in the novel The Kite Runner (2003) written by Khaled Husseini. This paper highlights the social conditions of Afghans, the way Hosseini describes through the fictional characters, and the kind of challenges they face in coming to grip with the needs spread over the ladder given by Abraham Maslow and the different avenues for their gratification that are open to those involved in this matrix. What it makes obvious is the fact that using Maslow’s insights as our theoretical framework helps us understand the internal workings of the characters in the novel the way Hosseini masterfully captures them with a sensitivity to their physiological needs where if one rises above his limitation (Zaman), the other descends even further in pursuit of physiological needs (Taliban official).

Authors:   Hafiza Sarwat Fatima [1], Dr. Ayesha Siddiqa [2], DOI:


The American Dream is associated with the promise of equality, opportunity, success, and achievement through hard work and perseverance. It promises free practice of religious, social, and cultural values of different ethnic and racial groups to “construct a new race, a new religion, a new state, a new literature” (Emerson, 1909, p. 116). Hypnotized by these values of the American Dream, immigrants from all corners of the world pour into America to achieve these ideals of happiness and prosperity. However, despite being hailed as the panacea for all, the mythical nature of the American Dream has come to be vigorously debated over the last hundred years. Indeed, the political and economic crises at the turn of the twenty-first century have further exposed the fault lines of the American Dream (Archer, 2014). While literary critiques of the materialistic nature of the Dream can be traced back to classics such as F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1925), Laila Halaby’s Once in a Promised Land (2007) is a contemporary exploration of the meaning of “Americanness” from the perspective of an Arab American couple in the aftermath of 9/11. Through a critical analysis of the representation of Americanness in the novel, the paper argues that the already elusive nature of the American Dream becomes further complicated in an America unsettled by 9/11; as such, rather than reinforcing their American identity, for Arab Americans, the notion of Americanness becomes a source of disillusionment and alienation.

Authors:   Kainat Zeb [1], Dr. Mehnaz [2], Hira Durrani [3], DOI:


The present research attempts to show how in the white dominant society in America the blacks are treated as represented by Russo. This issue has to be dealt with under the Critical Race Theory (CRT) which is applied to the text of the novel Bridge Of Sighs written by Richard Russo, an American novelist. The content of the text indicates how blacks have been historically and culturally suppressed. This research is important in the sense that it does not only highlight and present the construction of various forms of oppression based on racial identity like deprivation and degradation but also represents them by covertly voicing the stance of the Black community. Therefore, this study provides a new angle to the research at hand, in the discipline of art of interpretation. The analysis has been conducted paragraph-wise and the critical discussion is done under the Critical Race Theory. It allows the researcher to analyze the societal role in shaping various identities of blacks in relation to the white-dominant society.

Authors:   Saba Hanif [1], Azra Khanam [2], Shabbir Ahmad [3], DOI:


This study explores the journey of women from resilience to resistance in combating hard times in Toni Morrison’s Paradise and Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns through the theory of resilience by Ponomarov and Holcomb (2009), and theory of resistance via counter theory by Solorzano and Yosso (2002). The common troublesome experience of the women in both of these novels makes them resilient for living in problematic circumstances and fight against the oppression caused by hierarchies of gender and class. Resilience provides women strength for combatting the challenges of patriarchal domination and becomes a driving force to have a life of one’s own choice. However, these novels expose the ubiquitous power of patriarchy and relevant dangers. Khaled Hosseini concludes his novel on an optimistic note by showing a surviving woman achieving independence and successfully building a home for abandoned women in A Thousand Splendid Suns. Morrison ends her novel with the death of freedom seeker women but their death sends a message of resistance in the path of freedom. It highlights Morrison’s concern not only with African Women in America and Hosseini’s concern with resilient women in war ridden Afghanistan but their concern with voices of all deprived women in the world. The women exhibit resilience in difficult times proving them to be strong and brave. This study paves a way for further research in resilience studies in association with various dimensions of women resistance in these novelists.

Authors:   Dr. Muhammad Ajmal [1], Dr. Safia Siddiqui [2], Amber Hafeez [3], DOI:


Submissiveness is a complex phenomenon that can manifest in different ways in different contexts. It is a behavior that is characterized by a willingness to yield to the will of others, often to the point of sacrificing one's own interests or desires. This research paper compares the theme of submissiveness in James Joyce's Eveline and William Faulkner's A Rose for Emily. Both short stories portray female protagonists who are trapped in their societal roles and are unable to break free. The study analyzes the ways in which the characters' submissiveness is portrayed, including their attitudes toward love, marriage, and family. The paper also examines the impact of social and cultural norms on the characters' actions, and how these norms contribute to their inability to assert themselves. Through a close reading of the two works, the study aims to shed light on the role of gender and power dynamics in literature and society, and how these dynamics shape the lives of individuals. The comparison of Eveline and A Rose for Emily demonstrates the enduring relevance of literary works and their potential to offer insight into the complexities of human experience and social dynamics.

Volume No. 03

Issue No. 01