Pakistan Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Research

Authors:   Dr. Muhammad Tahir Rashid [1], DOI:


The main focus of this research is the American war on drugs in Colombia. It presents a comprehensive case study that delves into the country's drug policies and the influence they have had on Colombian society. The article will analyse the history of drug trafficking in Colombia, the measures implemented by the United States to fight against drug trafficking, and the impact of these policies on the social and economic realm of Colombian life. Additionally, it examines the unforeseen outcomes of US policies, such as the displacement of rural communities and the emergence of new criminal factions. This article conducts a thorough review of literature, primary as well as secondary data to critically assess the US War on Drugs in Colombia. It also offers suggestions for an enhanced and long-lasting drug policy.

Authors:   Sajid Ali [1], DOI:


Anxiety of second language learners has become a great concern for researchers. It has a great influence upon the learning. The studies conducted in this domain have proved that language anxiety is existed there. The present research threw light upon the sources of language anxiety. The study used the qualitative method of questionnaire and interview from ten experts of language. The findings came to prove that those students were highly anxious. The study ended with demonstrating a number of propositions that might be helpful to reduce their anxiety level. It improved the classroom environment of language learning.

Authors:   Dr. Ahmad Ali [1], Amina Shafique [2], Muqaddas Waheed [3], DOI:


Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world, covering 20% of the Earth’s surface water, it provides ample opportunities for cooperation and contention. Where the Indian Ocean is desirous because of its location, regional climate, hydrology, marine life, sea lines of communications, chokepoints, major harbors, ports and blue economy potential, it is also quite dreaded as in addition to washing up on shores of two South Asian nuclear powers (India and Pakistan), it has also seduced powers like United States and China to dock in the IOR. The former combo, in its quest to achieve defense invincibility, has embarked on Indian Ocean nuclearization rampage while also being facilitated by the latter combo compelled by their own vested interests. This research is modelled to be descriptive in its design and qualitative in its nature. The data gathered to carry out this study has been collected through secondary sources including different articles, journals and websites etc. The study mainly focuses on the contributions and interests of the superpowers and regional powers in the Indian Ocean and points out that for a stable, secure and harmonious environment in the Indian Ocean, and concludes that to keep the nuclear frenzy of South Asian and regional rivals in check, the extra regional powers must rise to the occasion and refrain from playing favourites.

Authors:   Nazir Ahmad [1], Wajid Ali [2], DOI:


The fundamental reason behind directing the review is to examine the “Relationship between job satisfaction and job stress among High School teachers in Public and Private sectors”. The population of the study contained all the Public and Private High Schools of District Malakand. All the male teachers of Public and Private High Schools in district Malakand were target for the population of the study. Sample of 50 teachers from Public and 50 teachers from Private were selected randomly from the target population of Public and Private High Schools of District Malakand. The tools used were Teachers Job Satisfaction scaled questionnaire consisting 15 items and Teacher Stress Inventory questionnaire consisting 15 items. Data was analyzed through SPSS. Frequencies, percentages, and Means were used as descriptive statistics for organizing and summarizing data while “Correlation (Spearman's rho)” was used as inferential statistics to analyze data and get the results. From the findings of this research, it’s clear that the majority of the teachers of Government High Schools in district Malakand were satisfied in teaching job, while the majority of the teachers of Private High Schools in district Malakand were not satisfied in teaching job. According to current study less the stress more the satisfaction in the prescribed jobs and vice versa. Furthermore, this study indicates that the ability of teachers to deal with workplace stress can be minimize by better handling physical and mental pressures at work and this can lead to an improvement in the level of optimistic moral ethics, job satisfaction, social and attitudinal results such as commitment and teachers’ efficiency. The uplifting outlook of the head, understudies and partner helps a great deal in further developing the work fulfillment of teacher. The chief really must stay away from tyrannical way of behaving; he ought to be a decent manager, who

Authors:   Javeria Noor Sawal [1], Sara Shah Jehan [2], Noor Fatima [3], DOI:


Pakistan ranks as the eighth most vulnerable country across the globe to climate change impacts. It was the second time after the deluge of 2010, that Pakistan faced heavy monsoon rains from June-August 2022 which resulted in flash floods. Flood ravages continued in almost all the regions of the four provinces and have been declared a calamity hit. Rescue operations were underway across the provinces and taking swift action to evacuate people to safer places. The deluge has devastated residences, farmlands, infrastructure, and businesses in abundance. The deadly rain-induced floods displaced many people from their areas and caused causalities of both humans and animals, and washed away the protective embankments set up alongside the River banks. This paper attempts to provide a detailed situational overview of Pakistan’s flood-hit areas, and give policy recommendations for mitigation and adaptation strategies. Further, the significance lies in highlighting the role of administrative sectors in conducting rescue operations amid flood emergencies.

Volume No. 06

Issue No. 02