International Journal of Psychological and Behavioural Research (IJPBR)

Authors:   Mubasher Ahmad [1], Syeda Nadia Shah [2], Aman Ullah [3], Abdus Salam [4], DOI:


The human population has been drastically affected by the COVID19 pandemic, contributed to different psychological and social issues including health anxiety, depression, stress, and limited social interaction among the general population. The main theme of the present study was to evaluate/examine psychological problems caused by COVID-19, primarily focusing on anxiety, depression, stress levels and social impact in both COVID-19-affected and healthy populations. Utilizing the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) for data collection, this study compared individuals infected with COVID-19 to those who were not. Primary data was collected from 200 participants selected through non-probability consecutive sampling from the general population of KPK, comprising both males and females aged 15 years and above. Findings of the study confirmed elevated levels of anxiety, depression, and stress among COVID-19 infected individuals. The study demonstrated significant disparities in anxiety, depression, and stress levels between COVID-19-infected and healthy respondents. Those with COVID-19 show increased clinical depression, anxiety, and stress, aligning with previous studies indicating higher anxiety, stress, and depression in hospitalized patients. Moreover, the findings regarding gender differences in psychological health, with females revealing higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress compared to males. The conclusion from the study revealed that females are more vulnerable to psychological problems. Based on the study findings of this empirical work it is recommended to conduct further empirical work involving a larger and more diverse population to deepen our understanding of these psychological challenges and develop effective strategies for psychological health support.

Authors:   Lubna Nazneen [1], Farhana Jahangir [2], Fasihullah [3], DOI:


Present study was designed to investigate the effect of different factors on the attentional vitality/flexibility of the university students as measured through Stroop task. Objectives of the study were to find out gender differences in general as well as to compare the performance of female students during their menstrual cycle with that of other females without cycle and with the male students. University students (100 male and 100 females), with age range 20 to 25 years enrolled in BS and Masters were included in the study. Convenience sampling technique was used to select these participants. English version of the Stroop Test, designed by Trenerry et al. (1989) was used. t- test was used for data analysis. Significant differences were observed between males and females in general, similarly the performance of females during their menstrual cycle phase was significantly low as compared to other females without cycle.

Authors:   Mudassar Hussain [1], Dr. Rubina Hanif [2], Asfa Hanif [3], DOI:


The aim of the current research was to investigate the nature of relationships among grief, post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth. Mean group differences on study variables based on circumstantial factors and demographic characteristics of the participants and the deceased including gender were inquired. A sample of 331 participants above 16 years, who had lost family members, near relative and close friends due to Covid-19, were selected. Translation process of scale, prolonged grief scale was carried out through back-translation design. Adapted Urdu versions of prolonged grief scale (Prigerson et al., 2021), post-traumatic stress disorder Checklist-DSM-5 (Weathers et al., 2013) and post-traumatic growth inventory-short form (Cann et al., 2010), along with a demographic sheet were used. Translation process of prolonged grief scale was carried out through back-translation design. The results showed that grief was positively significantly correlated with post-traumatic stress and significantly negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth; post-traumatic stress had significantly negatively correlated with post-traumatic growth. Results of t-test showed that females had significantly more intense grief and post-traumatic stress, whereas males reported greater experience of post-traumatic growth. Result also showed that there were significantly more grief and posttraumatic stress, where death of male occurred. Limitations of the current study were also highlighted and suggestions for future research are mentioned

Authors:   Asfa Hanif [1], Dr. Naeem Aslam [2], Zainab [3], DOI:


The purpose of this study is to discuss more understandable research that shows connections between sexual harassment, non-verbal emotional cues, and dressing. This is particularly crucial when there is a dearth of research that connects the connections and provides a thorough and analytical framework for analyzing the problem. The arguments in this study from a multidisciplinary approach provide fresh perspectives on the problem of sexual harassment in human civilization. Qualitative exploratory research by using focus group discussion and interviews was used to understand sexual harassment in context of dressing and non-verbal emotional cues and how is it misperceived in Pakistani culture. Systematic grounded theory emphasizes the use of data analysis in three phases; archival data from newspaper article and blogs, focus group discussion and interviews and it develops a logical paradigm or pictorial view of theory construction by using the themes and coding from all qualitative data. According to the findings the women are likely to become victims of sexual harassment on the basis their dressing and non-verbal emotional cues. These cues are visually perceived by the harasser, the environment of the victim and the harasser is different so encoding and decoding of the cues being misperceived that ultimately lead towards sexual harassment.

Authors:   Muhammad Bilal [1], Dr. Amna Ali [2], Habib Ullah [3], DOI:


In this competitive and challenging climate various sectors are in great effort to boost up their employees performance. To examine this idea, organizational behavior was studied in connection to factors such as working conditions, training programs, employee engagement, and external factors. A mixed-methods approach was employed, involving surveys of 250 workers across several sectors as well as qualitative interviews. This study was aim to assess the impact of working environment, training, and employee engagement on organization behavior environment and to explore employee engagement that how it mediates the relationship between the working environment and Organization behavior environment. The mediation analysis revealed that happier workers were more likely to be engaged in their work, and that this in turn predicted a more productive workplace with higher levels of morale, job satisfaction, and teamwork. These links were further explained via qualitative themes underlining the critical role of involvement in tying work and training design to the corporate culture. According to the results, firms may create a more productive workplace by taking a holistic approach to improving job design, training opportunities, and employee engagement.

Volume No. 03

Issue No. 02