National Journal of Biological Sciences (NJBS)

Authors:   Amir Nadeem [1], DOI:


Dental remains of Propotamochoerus (Mammalia, Suidae) have been recently discovered and documented in the Middle Siwalik beds near Hasnot, a region in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The Jhelum district serves as the location where the fossils in question were found. A single tooth was extracted from the individual's left second maxillary molar, and this tooth is the component that is being discussed. The suids that belonged to the genus Propotamochoerus ranged in size from very small to quite enormous. An upper second molar on the left side is the focus of the investigation that is now being carried out because it provides insightful information regarding the essential dental traits of this particular genus. A detailed morphometric analysis of the tooth shows its relevant placement in the given genus. This particular tooth that was unearthed has the potential to contribute to the existing body of knowledge concerning the species that have been documented from the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

Authors:   Tanveer Majeed [1], Syeda Masooma Zehra1 , Fatima Asim [2], Kashaf Sarwar [3], Simrah Kaleem [4], DOI:


Maintaining a healthy weight involves a variety of factors, including sleep patterns, exercise routines, and environmental and medical situations. However, if one is trying to get to a healthy weight, the meals they eat also need to be considered. Food by itself is not the only solution to weight control, but there is unquestionably a link between nutrition, weight, and health. This thorough study examines the mindboggling transaction of food inclinations among people effectively participated in weight reduction ventures. Providing a nuanced comprehension of the complex idea of food inclinations and their suggestions for weight loss enthusiasts, it recognizes the developing scene of weight, moving from past view of outrageous eating regimens and brief arrangements towards an ongoing comprehension that underscores adjusted, manageable, and long-haul way of life changes. By perceiving these impacts, the exploration reveals the intricacies that people face while endeavoring to go with dietary decisions that supplement their weight reduction endeavors. This exploration utilized a thorough study strategy to dive into the complexities of food inclinations among people on a weight reduction venture. This article encompasses the past and present perceptions, the cultural and psychological aspects, and the evolving trends that shape individuals' choices. We sought to explore the types of foods that individuals on a weight loss journey find most appealing and are inclined to include in their diet and to gauge the level of awareness and adherence to dietary guidelines (1). Also, to assess the impact of personal preferences on their food choices during weight loss, to determine any patterns or trends in food preferences that may be associated with successful weight management. And to gather insights into the challenges individuals face in maintaining a healthy eating pattern while pursuing their weight loss goals.

Authors:   Ruqyya Khalid [1], Haiqa Munir [2], Tehreem Humayon [3], Fizza Zehra [4], DOI:


This research investigates antibiotic usage patterns among university students in Lahore, Pakistan. The study, conducted through a cross-sectional design with a sample of 50 participants, reveals a high level of awareness about antibiotics among students. However, prevalent misconceptions persist, including the belief that antibiotics are effective against viral infections. Findings indicate that a significant proportion of students have used antibiotics in the past year, with common reasonsincluding flu and cold. The study sheds light on the easy availability of antibiotics without prescriptions, contributing to selfmedication practices. Despite awareness of antibiotic resistance, discussions with healthcare providers remain limited. The study suggests a pressing need for educational initiatives, stricter regulations on antibiotic sales, and enhanced awareness campaigns to address these issues among university students.

Authors:   Fawad Mahmood [1], Ali Naqi Hassan [2], Jawad Aslam [3], Sheraz Sajid [4], Ali Abdullah [5], Muhammad Suleman Hashmi [6], Muhammad Tabish [7], Ansa Khan [8], DOI:


Hepatitis C is a significant public health concern across worldwide, especially in Pakistan. Understanding the prevalence of the disease at the regional level is crucial for effective prevention and control measures. In this study, we collected demographic information from study participants, including age, gender, marital status, and, other relevant variables, and also administered a structured questionnaire to know the history of the patient. We used hepatitis C kits to identify the hepatitis virus in patients. In our research, we took a sample of 329 people out of which 31 were positive and 298 were negative. Out of total 329 people,170 were male patients and 159 patients were female. To calculate the overall prevalence of Hepatitis C based on the given sample data, number of positive cases 31 were divided by the total number of samples. Overall prevalence was 9% in Gujrat. Prevalence among Males was 7% while 10.6% among females. Our findings showed that the prevalence of HCV is alarmingly high in district Gujrat as compared to the rest of Pakistan. Prevalence of Hepatitis C among married in Gujarat, Pakistan is approximately 11.27% (30 out of 266 patients the overall prevalence of HCV in Pakistan is 6% while it's 9% in Gujrat). As a result, different levels of prevention are required for these fatal illnesses. Preventing Hepatitis C involves taking certain precautions to reduce the risk of transmission. Practice safe injection practices. Always use sterile needles and syringes and avoid sharing drug paraphernalia with others. This reduces the risk of HCV transmission through contaminated needles.

Authors:   Naseer Ullah [1], Ahmad Ali [2], Niamat Ali [3], Akhtar Rasool [4], DOI:


There are different types of fishes based on feeding behaviour, some are carnivorous and some are omnivorous while others are herbivorous. To find out the feeding habit of wild Schizothorax plagiostomus, the gut contents have been analyzed. The fish samples were collected from River Swat at Different points (Mingora, Matta, Khwazakhela, Madyan, Bahrain and Baghderai). The fish were dissected by using different dissection tools for the isolation of the entire gut. The gut contents were examined through a microscope. In the gut contents, different things have been noted such as Spirogyra ellipsospora, Cladophaor crispate, Ulothrix, Calothrix parietina, Zygnema kashmirense, Anomoeoneis sphaeophora, Nitzschi linearis and Naviculoid Diatom. Besides all these food items, detritus, some unidentified plants, larvae and other materials were also observed. It has been concluded that S. plagiostomus is omnivorous.

Volume No. 4

Issue No. 01