National Journal of Biological Sciences (NJBS)

Authors:   Wahid Ullah [1], Marium Khan [2], Abdul Sattar [3], Khazina Ikram [4], Fawad Mahmood [5], Asim Arshad [6], Aizaz Ali Shah [7], Shah Faisal [8], Kaleem Ahmed [9], DOI:


Anemia is a serious public health concern in today’s world which is particularly affecting young children, pregnant women, menstruating adolescent girls and women. The two most common causes of anemia are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease (ACD), often known as anemia of inflammation. This study aim was to assess the levels of certain hematological parameters, including Hemoglobin Estimation, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Serum Ferritin, Serum TIBC, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C - reactive protein to clearly differentiate between iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease. The study was conducted in Department of Medical Lab Technology, Riphah International University, Islamabad from September 01, 2023 to January 01, 2024. A total of 109 samples with 59 of iron deficiency anemia patients and 50 patients of Anemia of chronic disease were assessed for differentiation be these two diseases. The significant level was selected with p-value less than 0.05. Hemoglobin estimation, TIBC, and ESR were significant in our investigation as their p-values were less than 0.05. Hence, it concluded that Hemoglobin estimation, total Iron Binding Capacity and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate were Hematological parameters that distinguished between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Anemia of Chronic Disease

Authors:   Asif Ali Kaleri [1], Habibullah Rajper [2], Muzamil Hussain Awan [3], Murad Ali Magsi [4], Naseeruddin [5], Vijai kumar [6], Danish Manzoor [7], Imam Uddin Palal [8], Muhammad Taimoor Saeed [9], Ijaz Ahmed [10], DOI:


The research was conducted in 2022 in the Agronomy Student's Experiment Farm at Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam. It used a complete block design with randomization. The main goal was to evaluate how much adding different amounts of FYM and nitrogen-phosphorus affected the growth and seed production ability of sunflowers. The research had five different FYM options and nitrogen-phosphorus levels. The HO-1 variety was given these treatments. The assigned treatments were as follows: T1 = control (no FYM, 0 kg/ha nitrogen and 0 kg/ha phosphorus); T2 = adding a small amount of farmyard manure plus some extra nutrients in the form of nitrogen at a rate of 30kg per hectare, along with an additional quantity of 15 kg per hectare. The best results were seen in T5 (5 tons of farm FYM + fertilizers, with 120 kg per hectare of nitrogen and 50 kg per hectare of phosphorus). This method resulted in the most plants on a square meter (9.11), the tallest plant growth at about 248.8 cm high; T5 was closely followed with good results (a lot of FYM plus 120 kg per hectare nitrogen and 50 kg phosphorus). The research indicates that the optimal combination for enhancing sunflower growth and yield includes applying 120 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, 50 kg ha-1 of phosphorus, and incorporating 5 tons of FYM.

Authors:   Tanveer Majeed [1], Ushna Zubair [2], Fatima Asim [3], Kashaf Sarwar [4], Simrah Kaleem [5], DOI:


Extensive research has been conducted on biodegradable materials due to the growing worldwide concern about plastic pollution and the hunt for sustainable alternatives. Because of their environmentally beneficial qualities, bioplastics made from seaweed have become one of these alternatives' most promising solutions. The unique characteristics of seaweed-derived alginate aid in the creation of biodegradable polymers with prospective uses in a range of sectors. The article looks at several types of bioplastics, such as those made of cellulose, polylactic acid, starch, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. Even though these bioplastics have made significant progress, alginate-based bioplastics highlight their enormous potential as a substitute for conventional plastics. Their adaptable qualities—such as excellent biodegradability, tunable mechanical strength, flexibility, environmental friendliness, and renewability—make them ideal for a variety of uses, including 3D printing, packaging, and agricultural applications. The performance and scalability of alginate-based bioplastics might be further improved by the current research and development in this area.

Authors:   Naseer Ullah [1], Mian Sayed Khan [2], Akhtar Rasool [3], DOI:


Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by intracellular parasitic protozoans belonging to a genus of flagellate protozoa called Leishmania. More than 25 species of the genus Leishmania are present worldwide in which several species are pathogenic to humans. In many cases, cutaneous infection is formed but some species cause subcutaneous or deeper tissues and visceral infection. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a skin disease caused by Leishmania topica. This disease is transmitted by sandflies. The disease is endemic along the entire Western border of Pakistan. During the present research, the samples were collected from infected people in different areas of Dir Upper. A total of 548 samples were collected among which 346 (63%) were positive cases. In the infected people, 297 (86%) were from the local population and 59 (14%) from Afghan refugees. A total of 235 (68%) males and 111(32%) females were affected. The high prevalence rate (48.5%) was noticed in the age of 11-20 years old people. The prevalence rate between the age of 0-10 was 29.1%. The low prevalence rate (13.6%) was noticed in the people over 30 years. Mostly one lesion was noticed in affected people (69%). The patients with two lesions were 22%. The numbers of affected persons with more than two active lesions were little in number i. e. 8.3%. Most of the lesions were reported on the face (36.1%). The second affected part of the body noticed in the study was hand (26.5%). Most of the lesions were dry (81%). It is concluded that a high prevalence rate was observed. People’s awareness is very necessary.

Authors:   Sultan Muhammad [1], Moazzam Nizami [2], Kaleem Mehmood [3], Mansoor Hayat [4], Shoaib Ahmad Anees [5], Muhammad Tayyab Khan [6], Khadim Hussain [7], Islam Zada [8], Uzair Khan [9], DOI:


Chir pine botanically called Pinus roxburghii of family Pinaceae, found in sub-tropical chir pine zone providing valuable services to the locals. The anthropogenic disturbances in sub-tropical Chir pine forest are mostly affecting natural regeneration in coniferous forest of Pakistan. However, natural factors like slope, aspect, elevation, sunshade etc. also responsible for low density of natural regeneration in these forests. Therefore, we formulated a study to investigate the effect of slope and aspect on natural regeneration of chir pine forest in Malakand region in Khyber Pakhutnkhwah. Regeneration was studied on three different slopes (steep slopes of 27° and above, the moderate slope of 18- 27° and gentle slope 18° and below and northern and southern aspect. A total of 45 random samples were thoroughly studied in the form of circular plots of radius 8.4 meters, 15 from each category of slope in each study area. Similarly, 20 plots on southern and 20 northern aspect were also selected randlomly in each study area. Analsysis was carried out through two way analysis of variance for slopes and two sample independent t- test for aspect through SPSS and significance difference among slope was determined through tukey test. The result showed that moderate slope and southern aspect was the best for optimum natural regeneration. The less number of regeneration on gentle slope corresponds to heavy anthropogenic activities, grazing pressure and inadequate mother trees. The study recommend to focus efforts of regeneration protectoin mainly on moderate slope, prohibit individuals from collecting seeds, and raise public understanding of natural regeneration.

Volume No. 4

Issue No. 02